Glossary

Abrasion - Awning window

  1. Abrasion

    Wearing away of a surface in service by action such as rubbing, scraping or erosion.

  2. Abrasion Resistance

    The ability of a material to withstand mechanical action such as rubbing, scraping, or erosion that tends to progressively remove material from the surface.

  3. Abrasive

    Any material used to wear away, smooth or polish a surface; for example, sandpaper that is used to smooth wood.

  4. Absorption (light)

    The light energy (wavelengths) not reflected by an object or substance. The color of a substance depends on the wavelength reflected.

  5. Abuse-resistant drywall

    A heavy-duty type of drywall, available in 1/2- and 5/8-inch thicknesses, that has heavier paper than regular panels and a reinforced core.

  6. Accelerated weathering

    Tests designed to simulate, but at the same time intensify and accelerate, the destructive action of natural outdoor weathering.

  7. Accelerator

    A substance used in small proportions to increase the speed of a chemical reaction. Accelerators are used in paint to hasten the curing of a coating system.

  8. Accent

    In a room scheme, a small area of intense color that contrasts, either in hue or tone, with the lighter or more muted prevailing colors. Often provided by accessories and trimmings, accents add detail and draw the eye to various elements.

  9. Accent light

    A type of light that highlights an area to emphasize that aspect of a room's character.

  10. Accent lighting

    A type of lighting that highlights an area or object to emphasize that aspect of a room's character.

  11. Accessible designs

    Those that accommodate persons with physical disabilities.

  12. Accordion folding

    A folding technique used for a booked strip of wallpaper. The paper is folded back and forth to keep pasted sides together and allow relaxing or expanding time. This fold also makes long strips easier to manage during the installation.

  13. Acetate

    The plastic sheet material often used for making stencils.

  14. Acetate

    A solvent used in fast dry, film building coatings. Good solvent, with a low flash point.

  15. Achromatic

    Lacking color, black, gray or white.

  16. Acid demand

    The amount of acid required by a body of water to raise the pH to neutral (7).

  17. Acrylic

    A water-based plastic polymer that acts as the binder in acrylic paints.

  18. Acrylic paint

    A water-soluble paint with a plastic polymer (acrylic) binder.

  19. Acrylic resin

    An aqueous dispersion of acrylic resins, water-white in color, very transparent, and resistant to discoloration, moisture, alcohol acids, alkalis and mineral oils. Usually made by polymerization of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid.

  20. Acrylic Resin

    An aqueous dispersion of acrylic resins, water-white in color, very transparent, and resistant to iscoloration, moisture, alcohol acids, alkalis and mineral oils. Usually made by polymerization of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid.

  21. Acrylic varnish

    A coating that contains the same medium used to make water-soluble paints and glazes.

  22. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene-ABS

    A plastic formulation (typically black in color) used for some rigid pond shells, also for drainpipe in plumbing systems.

  23. Activator

    The curing agent of a two compound coating system.

  24. Active

    A state in which a metal tends to corrode; opposite of passive.

  25. Active solvent

    A liquid which can dissolve a paint binder when used alone.

  26. Active solvent

    The exact measurements of a piece of lumber after it has been cut, surfaced and dried. Example: A 2x4's actual dimensions are 1-1/2 x 3-1/2 inches.

  27. Actual dimension-lumber

    The exact cross-sectional measurements of a piece of lumber after it has been cut, surfaced and dried.

  28. Actual dimensions - masonry

    The measured dimensions of a masonry unit.

  29. Actual length-rafters

    Length of a rafter after half the thickness of the ridgeboard has been subtracted.

  30. Adaptable

    Refers to design that can be easily changed to accommodate a person with disabilities.

  31. Adaptable

    A fitting that connects two pipes of different sizes or materials.

  32. Additive

    A substance added in a small amount, usually to a fluid, for a special purpose - such as to reduce friction, corrosion, etc.

  33. Adhesion

    The property of a paint film that enables it to stick to a surface.

  34. Adhesive aeration

    A condition where the adhesive is filled with miniature air bubbles. Mixing or whipping the adhesive in too vigorous a manner is usually the cause. These bubbles can cause small blisters to form beneath the wallpaper, especially when installing nonbreathable types.

  35. Adhesive aeration

    A pastelike cement used for applying floor and wall tiles; a waterproof caulking compound used in roofing.

  36. Adhesive penetration

    The process where the adhesive soaks into the wallpaper substrate during the relaxing or booking period.

  37. Adhesive viscosity

    The internal friction of an adhesive that restricts its tendency to flow or spread. The viscosity controls the amount of adhesive you can spread at a given thickness. Adhesive viscosity also affects drying time.

  38. Adhesive volatility

    The evaporation time associated with a particular adhesive. Volatility increases during the hot summer months, especially if you are working on new construction and there is no air conditioning.

  39. Adhesive wrinkles

    Wrinkles or ridges that occur immediately following the installation of wallpaper, caused by further expansion of the paper. Inadequate booking time is often a cause. Adhesive wrinkles normally dry out within 24 to 48 hours. Wrinkled wallpaper should generally be removed and reinstalled rather than fixed.

  40. Adulteration

    Any admixture of less value than the accepted standard, or the partial substitution of one substance for another without acknowledgment.

  41. Advancing colors

    Warm, saturated colors that seem to come forward toward the viewer. Advancing colors can make rooms seem more cozy and objects slightly larger.

  42. Aeration cell

    An oxygen concentration cell; an electrolytic cell resulting from differences in dissolved oxygen at two points.

  43. Aerosol

    A product that uses compressed gas to spray the coating from its container.

  44. After-tack

    Film defect in which the coated surface, having once reached a tack-free stage, subsequently develops a sticky condition.

  45. Agglomerate

    Clumps of pigment crystals which have formed loose clusters containing entrapped air. Usually undesirable in paint, as they tend to settle out and have poor optical properties.

  46. Aggregates

    Crushed stone, gravel or other material used with cement and water to form concrete.

  47. Aging

    Allowing to stand undisturbed for a period in order to develop certain characteristics. Some materials improve upon aging, others have a tendency to lose their value.

  48. Air barrier

    An air-infiltration barrier or house wrap that can be used to protect a storage area in the attic from moisture and dust.

  49. Air barrier tape

    A moisture-proof tape that covers the joint and sticks to the substrate. Duct tape or contractor's tape work well.

  50. Air brush

    Very small spray gun, not much larger than a fountain pen, designed as an artist's tool.

  51. Air cap (air nozzle)

    The structure at the front of a spray nozzle which directs compressed air against the paint to form and shape an atomized cloud of droplets.

  52. Air chamber

    A vertical, air-filled pipe that prevents water hammer by absorbing pressure when water is shut off at a faucet.

  53. Air drying

    The most common form of curing a coating in which drying takes place by oxidation or solvent evaporation by simple exposure to air without heat or catalyst.

  54. Air entrapment

    The inclusion of air bubbles in liquid paint or a paint film.

  55. Air gap

    The distance between the outlet of a faucet and the overflow level of the fixture.

  56. Air-dried lumber

    Lumber that is dried by being exposed to air, rather than an oven or kiln.

  57. Air-dried wood

    Lumber that is stacked with spacers to allow air to circulate and is usually marked indicating its maximum moisture content at the time it leaves the mill.

  58. Air-entrained (concrete)

    Concrete that has been mixed with an admixture that causes tiny bubbles of air to be held in the mixture as the concrete sets. Air-entrained concrete is more workable and less vulnerable to frost.

  59. Airless spraying

    Process of atomization of paint by forcing it through an orifice at high pressure.

  60. Alcohol

    A group of solvents of relatively high evaporation rate but with fairly low solvent strength. Methanol, ethanol, and isopropyl are common alcohols.

  61. Aliphatic

    A class of organic solvents which are composed of open chains of carbon atoms, derived from paraffin base crude oil. Aliphatics are relatively weak solvents. Among the typical aliphatic hydrocarbons are gasoline, mineral spirits, naphtha and kerosene.

  62. Alizarin crimson

    One of the basic pigments, alizarin crimson is synthetically derived from coal tar and ranges from scarlet to maroon.

  63. Alkali

    An aqueous liquid which has a pH value of between 7 and 14. A base or caustic material.

  64. Alkyd paints

    Paints with artificial resins (alkyds) forming their binder; often imprecisely called oil-based paints. Alkyds have replaced the linseed oil formerly used as a binder in oil-based paint.

  65. Alkyd resin

    A modified polyester-type resin used widely in the coatings field. Alkyd resin coatings are outstanding in their weather resistance.

  66. Alkyds

    Flexible resins made from reactions of organic acids with alcohols and natural oils. Known for corrosion resistance and a good overall performance on a variety of surfaces.

  67. Alligation

    Fine cracks resembling alligator skin that appear in a primer-sealer coat. Alligation can result when there is grease, dirt or wax buildup on a wall surface, when the temperature is low, or when the product is not thoroughly mixed.

  68. Alligatored finish

    Any finished surface that shows numerous cracks caused by aging and drying.

  69. Allowance - wallpaper

    The 2 to 3 inches of material for trimming included at the top or bottom of a strip of wallpaper.

  70. Alternating rolls

    The technique of working with two separate rolls of wallpaper to minimize waste while installing a drop-match patterned design.

  71. Aluminum

    A lightweight, corrosion-resistant metal used for vertical and horizontal siding.

  72. Aluminum oxide

    A long-life grit for abrasive wheels and sandpapers.

  73. Aluminum paint

    A paint that includes aluminum particles and gives a metallic finish when dried.

  74. Aluminum-oxide sandpaper

    A tan-colored sandpaper that is commonly used on sanding belts and disks.

  75. Ambient lighting

    General illumination that surrounds a room. There is no visible source of the light.

  76. Ambient temperature

    Room temperature or the existing temperature of the surroundings.

  77. American single roll

    An increasingly uncommon unit of wallpaper, usually containing between 34 to 36 square feet. These rolls vary from 20.5 to 36 inches in width and from 4 to 7 yards in length.

  78. Amide

    A functional group which can act as an epoxy resin curing agent.

  79. Amine

    Materials often used as curing agents for epoxy coatings.

  80. Amphoteric

    Possessing both basic and acidic properties.

  81. Anaerobic

    An absence of unreacted or free oxygen.

  82. Analogous colors

    Any three colors located next to one another on the color wheel.

  83. Anchoring

    Mechanical bonding of a coating to a rough surface, as contrasted with adhesion, which is chemical bonding.

  84. Angle of incidence

    Angle between the axis of an impinging light beam and a line perpendicular to the specimen surface.

  85. Angle of view

    Angle between the axis of observation and perpendicular to the specimen surface.

  86. Anhydrous

    Containing no water.

  87. Aniline dye

    A synthetic tinting medium made from coal-tar products, which can be dissolved in water or alcohol and used to change the color of wood.

  88. Anionic surfactant

    One which has a negative charge and migrates toward the anode or positive pole while in solution.

  89. Anode

    The positive terminal of an electrical source. In a corrosion cell, the anode is the electrode that has the greater tendency to go into solution. The point at which corrosion occurs.

  90. Anodic protection

    An appreciable reduction in corrosion by making a metal an anode and maintaining this highly polarized condition with very little current flow.

  91. Anti-corrosive coating

    A paint made with neutral or slightly alkaline pigments and a water resisting vehicle to be used as a primer on steel and other metals to prevent or retard corrosion.

  92. Anti-mildew agent

    A coating additive, usually toxic in nature, which inhibits the growth of mildew, fungus and other organisms.

  93. Antioxidant

    A material which, when added to a varnish or an oil, retards or prevents oxidation and drying.

  94. Antique finish

    A finish usually applied to furniture or woodwork to give the appearance of age.

  95. Antiquing

    Any technique used to make a painted surface look old; usually refers to a thin glaze that is applied to a surface, allowing the undercoat to show through.

  96. Anti-settling agent

    A material which slows down the natural settling of pigments and prevents hard settling.

  97. Anti-skinning agent

    A type of antioxidant, usually volatile, which when added to a varnish or an oil, will tend to prevent a skin of partially oxidized material from forming on the surface of the liquid while in the container or before being applied to the work.

  98. Appliance finish

    Generally, the thermoset coatings, which are characterized by their hardness, mar resistance and good chemical resistance.

  99. Apron - bathtub

    The front extension of a bathtub that runs from the rim to floor.

  100. Apron - furniture

    The board between the tops of a table's legs that supports the top or, in the case of a chair, the seat. Also called the "skirt."

  101. Apron - window

    The piece of trim around the interior side of a window that sits below the window stool and supports it.

  102. Apron tile

    Trim or facing on the side or in front of a countertop edge.

  103. Aqueous

    Pertaining to water; an aqueous solution is a water solution.

  104. Arbor

    Garden structure that can support plants and serves as a transition between sections of a yard or as an architectural feature that complements the landscape.

  105. Arc

    Any portion of a circle, such as those found in an archway or curved wall.

  106. Arch bead

    A plastic or metal strip designed to finish curved drywall seams in arched doorways or windows.

  107. Architectural coatings

    Coatings intended for on-site application to interior or exterior coatings of residential, commercial or institutional buildings -- as opposed to industrial coatings. Also called Trade Sales Coatings.

  108. Architectural grade lumber

    The best-looking and most expensive grade of lumber.

  109. Armoire

    A large, ornate cupboard or wardrobe that is used for storage.

  110. Aromatic

    An organic chemical possessing the benzene ring structure. Benzene, toluol and xylol are typical aromatic hydrocarbons.

  111. Art deco

    A decorative style that was based on geometric forms. It was popular during the 1920s and 1930s.

  112. Art nouveau

    A late-nineteenth-century decorative style that was based on natural forms. It was the first style to reject historical references and create its own design vocabulary, which included stylized curved details.

  113. Artificial break

    The point where the wallpaper or border ends against a decorative wood strip, spindle or other object. This lets the wallpaper or border end without an obvious mismatch.

  114. Artists acrylics

    Paints that contain pigments suspended in acrylic resin, similar to latex paint but of much higher quality.

  115. Artists oils

    The tube or oil-stick paint associated with fine-art paintings. They consist of pigments suspended in linseed oil, and come in a wide range of saturated colors.

  116. Arts and crafts movement

    A decorative style that began in England during the late nineteenth century, where it was known as the Aesthetic Movement. Lead by William Morris, the movement rejected industrialization and encouraged fine craftsmanship and simplicity in design.

  117. Asphalt

    A bituminous compound, dark brown or black in color, used in the manufacture of asphalt roofing shingles.

  118. Asphaltic concrete

    A mixture of liquid asphalt and aggregate used as a paving material.

  119. Astragal

    A vertical strip attached to the opening edge of one door in a pair, forming a jamb for the other door to close into.

  120. Atom

    The smallest particle of an element.

  121. Atomize

    To break a liquid into a mist or droplets. Spray guns atomize paint by forcing the paint through a small orifice under high pressure and through air stream interaction.

  122. Attic

    The space between the rafters and the ceiling joists.

  123. Available lighting conditions

    The ambient light in a room, including natural light and artificial light. Imperfections in the wall surface or wallpaper are more evident as the ambient light increases.

  124. Awning window

    A window with a single framed-glass panel. It is hinged at the top to swing out when it is open.

Back band - Butt-edged wood tiles

  1. Back band

    Molding used to decorate the outer edges of flat casing. It can also be used as a base cap.

  2. Back Buttering

    Applying adhesive to the back of a tile to supplement the adhesive spread on the setting bed. Any tile with an uneven back, button-backed tiles, sheet-mounted mosaic tiles and small cut tiles must be back-buttered to provide a strong bond.

  3. Backlighting

    Illumination coming from a source behind or at the side of an object.

  4. Back-prime

    The process of painting the back or unexposed side of material.

  5. Backsaw

    A saw used for small work on the bench top. An extra-fine narrow backsaw is called a dovetail saw.

  6. Backsplash

    The vertical part at the rear and sides of a countertop that protects the adjacent wall surface. It is at least 4-inches high.

  7. Baffle

    An obstacle purposely placed around a bird feeder to keep out unwanted competitors and predators.

  8. Baking

    The process of drying a coating material by the application of artificial heat. A baking enamel is one which requires elevated temperatures of 300°F to 400°F in order to become hard and dry.

  9. Ball Mills

    Cylindrical vessels containing steel balls used in grinding coatings.

  10. Baluster

    A vertical railing member that supports the upper and lower rails.

  11. Balustrade

    The entire assembly that supports the handrail. It consists of newels, balusters and the handrail.

  12. Barium Metaborate

    A pigment commonly used in corrosion-inhibitive coatings. Pigment particles plug the small pores in the dry film and absorb any moisture that enters the film, preventing it from reaching the metal substrate. Barium metaborate is also a mildewcide.

  13. Barrier coat

    A coating used to isolate a paint system either from the surface to which it is applied or a previous coating for the purpose of increasing adhesion or ensuring compatibility.

  14. Base cabinet

    A cabinet that rests on the floor and supports a countertop.

  15. Base cap

    Molding applied to the top of base trim.

  16. Base coat

    In decorative painting this is the solid color of either gloss or semi-gloss paint that shows underneath the glaze coat pattern.

  17. Base Coat

    Usually the first paint film applied to a surface.

  18. Base plan

    Transferring rough measurements of an existing room to a scale drawing; a convenient scale for planning a bathroom is to make 1/2 inch equal 1 foot.

  19. Base shoe

    Molding used to conceal any variation between the floor and base bottom. It is also used to cover edges of sheet vinyl flooring (when in-stalled without first removing base trim).

  20. Base tile

    Tile that has a finished top edge; it is designed specifically for the floor line.

  21. Base trim

    Sometimes called base molding, base trim protects the lower portion of the walls, and covers any gaps between the wall and the floor.

  22. Baseboard

    A piece of trim, either plain or milled, installed around a room at the base of the walls to conceal the joints of walls and adjoining floor covering.

  23. Baseboard shoe

    A narrow piece of trim, usually quarter round, attached to the baseboard at the floor to hide any gaps.

  24. Baseplate

    A plate that distributes vertical loads.

  25. Basin

    A shallow sink.

  26. Basket-weave design

    A pattern or arrangement that simulates an over-and-under weaving pattern.

  27. Bat

    A brick that is cut in half lengthwise.

  28. Bay window

    A window, typically three sided, that projects from a wall, creating a recessed area in the structure's interior. Also called an oriel.

  29. Bead

    Heavy accumulation of a coating which occurs at the lower edge of a panel or other vertical surface as the result of excessive flowing.

  30. Beam

    Horizontal structural member that sits on posts or walls and supports the structure above it. When bearing walls are removed, they must be replaced by a beam.

  31. Beam hanger

    A metal pocket- or shelf-like hanger that supports a beam where it butts into another member.

  32. Bearing wall (load-bearing wall)

    A wall designed to support rafters, ceiling joists or walls directly above it. All outside walls of a house are bearing walls.

  33. B-grade

    Like B-heart redwood, B-grade redwood contains limited knots. However, B-grade may also contain sapwood. Used for highly visible applications where the wood won't be subjected to rot.

  34. B-heart

    Redwood grade that contains limited knots but no sapwood and is less expensive than clear all-heart.

  35. Bidet

    A bowl-shaped fixture that supplies water for personal hygiene. It looks similar to a toilet.

  36. Bimetallic Corrosion

    Corrosion resulting from dissimilar metal contact.

  37. Binder (in painting)

    A viscous, pliant material that holds pigments in suspension and makes them adhere to surfaces; the bulk of what makes up paint.

  38. Biocide

    An additive to coatings that kills plants (e.g., algae, fungus, mildew, mold) growing in or on the surface of the coating.

  39. Bisque

    The clay body of a tile, or the clay from which the tile is made.

  40. Bite

    Ability of a coating to penetrate or soften a previous coating or substrate.

  41. Bitumastic

    A protective coating made primarily for waterproofing. A coal tar or asphalt based coating material usually used in thick films.

  42. Black silicone-carbide sandpaper

    A sandpaper which is made with water-resistant glue to attach the abrasives to the paper. This sandpaper is often referred to as "wet-or-dry" sandpaper because it can be used with a water or oil lubricant, or no lubricant at all.

  43. Blast Profile

    A cross sectional view of an abrasive blasted surface.

  44. Bleaching

    The use of oxalic acid or other agents to lighten or restore discolored or stained wood to its original color. The fading of a color toward white generally caused by exposure to chemicals or ultraviolet radiation.

  45. Bleaching Agent

    Any material which, when properly used, makes the color of an object permanently lighter.

  46. Bleeding

    The diffusion of coloring matter from the undercoat or substrate through the coating on top of it, resulting in discoloration of the topcoat.

  47. Blemish

    An irregularity, obviously not caused by weathering, marring the appearance of the surface of a specimen.

  48. Blender brushes

    Specialty brushes used to blend and soften all types of wet painted surfaces.

  49. Blister (in wallpapering)

    A small bubble of air that forms under the wallpaper during installation. The cause of blisters includes inadequate soaking or relaxing time, installation temperatures below 50 degrees F, air trapped between the wall and the paper, wallpaper installed on porous, unsealed wall and adhesive aeration.

  50. Blistering

    Paint problem characterized by paint coming off the surface in bubbles. Caused by paint applied over a wet, oily or dirty surface. Also occurs when water vapor escapes from the house interior.

  51. Blocking

    The undesirable sticking together of two painted surfaces when pressed together under normal conditions or under specified conditions of temperature, pressure and relative humidity.

  52. Bloom

    A bluish cast which forms on the surface of some films. Blooming is caused by the deposition of a thin film of foreign materials such as smoke, dust or oil, or by the exudation of a component of the paint film.

  53. Blotching

    A staining problem where the stain is unevenly absorbed causing dark and light areas. This is caused by a swirly grain or uneven density of a piece of wood.

  54. Blower

    An electromechanical device that generates air pressure to provide spa jets and rings with bubbles.

  55. Blown ceiling

    Popcorn-like texturing material fed through a hopper to an airless spray gun and blown onto a ceiling, where it is left to dry without retouching.

  56. Blueprint

    Any of the prints made by the Ozalid process (the image can be blue, black or brown).

  57. Blushing

    A term describing opaque lacquer that loses its gloss and becomes flat, or clear lacquer that turns white or milky. Usually caused by moisture settling on an uncured surface.

  58. Body

    The thickness or viscosity of a fluid. A practical term used to give a qualitative picture of consistency.

  59. Boiled Oil

    Linseed oil which will dry faster. Formerly it was heated to make it a drying oil. Today it has chemical driers added.

  60. Bolt-wallpaper

    A continuous roll of wallpaper equivalent to two or more single rolls and packaged as one unit. Usually 48- and 54-inch commercial wallpapers are packaged in 30-yard bolts. Bolts are packaged this way to increase the usable yield.

  61. Bonderizing

    A phosphate treatment on iron, steel or zinc which provides a degree of rust-inhibition and a good base for application of coatings. Bonderizing is a trade name of Parker Rust-Proof Company, and refers to their process of phosphating.

  62. Booking (in wallpapering)

    The technique of folding wallpaper and allowing time for the adhesive to penetrate without drying out so that the paper expands. The time period varies with different types of wallpaper. To book wallpaper, fold it pasted side to pasted side, with the edges of the strip in alignment and the ends overlapping about 1/2 inch approximately midway down the strip.

  63. Borate-treated lumber

    Lumber preserved with borate salts. This method is effective against wood-boring insects, but not as effective against mold and fungus, so it is not recommended for posts or other ground-contact situations.

  64. Borders (in wallpaper)

    A strip of wallpaper, usually less than 15-inches wide, that is used as a decorative element along ceiling lines, chair rails and around doors and windows.

  65. Bounce Back

    The rebound of atomized paint, especially when applied by conventional air spray methods.

  66. Bow window

    A rounded bay or bowed window projecting out from a building in an arced shape.

  67. Box cornice

    A cornice completely closed with trimwork.

  68. Boxing

    Pouring all paint of the same color and formula into one large container and then mixing it together to eliminate minor variations in color between cans.

  69. Breathable-wallpaper

    Any wallpaper that has a porous surface through which air can pass.

  70. Breather

    A type of coating, usually oil-based, which will allow moisture vapor to pass through. A breather is required for coating the broad surfaces of a wood house.

  71. Breccia marble

    Marble that is composed of sharp fragments cemented together.

  72. Brick

    Clay that is molded to shape and fired at high temperatures in a large kiln or oven. The color of the natural clay determines the color of the brick.

  73. Brick veneer tile

    Tile that simulates the appearance of real brick.

  74. Bright Rubbed Effect

    Mostly a furniture finish, where gloss is rubbed to a mar-free finish with approximately 50-60 units of gloss at 60°, with sandpaper, pumice, or steelwool and either oil or water.

  75. Brightness

    An optics and appearance attribute of visual sensation by which an observer is aware of the differences in luminance or lightness and saturation.

  76. Brittleness

    The tendency of a dried film to crack or flake when bent, flexed, or scratched.

  77. Broom finish

    The texture created when a concrete surface is stroked with a stiff broom while the concrete is still curing.

  78. Brush

    A tool composed of bristles set into a handle; often used to apply coatings. Bristles may be synthetic (needed for water-thinned paints) or natural, such as hog hair.

  79. Brush marks

    Marks of the brush that remain in the dried paint film.

  80. Brushability

    The ease of applying a coating by brush. Measured as ICI Viscosity.

  81. Bubbling

    The appearance of bubbles in the film while a material is being applied. Caused by any condition that causes air, vapors, or gases to be trapped in the film while it is soft but after it has hardened sufficiently to prevent the gas from escaping.

  82. Builder's flat

    A mixture consisting of joint compound diluted with water, which is spread on a wall like paint (usually on new construction). It provides a decorative surface, but it is one of the worst enemies of a good wallpapering job. To install wallpaper over builder's flat, first wash it thoroughly with a mixture of ammonia and water, and then seal it with an acrylic primer-sealer or a thinned-down oil-based primer-sealer.

  83. Built-in

    Any element, such as a bookcase or cabinetry, that is built into a wall or an existing frame.

  84. Built-up beam or girder

    A beam or girder made of smaller component parts, for example, nailing together three 2x12s for a "built-up" 6x12 beam.

  85. Built-up trim

    Several profiles of trim combined to appear as one large piece of molding. Most often it is used as ceiling trim or on the exterior of the home.

  86. Bullnose tile

    A trim tile with one rounded edge, used to finish off outside corners.

  87. Burled wood

    Wood that has been cut from a gnarled, knotty part of a tree, giving it a curved and irregular grain pattern.

  88. Burn-in stick

    Stick of filler material used in the repair of surface damage to furniture. The filler must be melted onto the damaged surface and then trimmed smooth. Also called lacquer or shellac stick.

  89. Burnished seam - wallpaper

    A seam that has a slick or glossy look caused by excessive pressure from a seam roller.

  90. Burnishing

    Damaging of a coating by abrading the surface.

  91. Burnt sienna

    One of the native colors, this is a deep, rich rust-red made from calcined raw sienna.

  92. Burnt umber

    One of the native colors, burnt umber is a dark reddish brown made from calcined raw umber.

  93. Butcher block

    A counter or tabletop material composed of strips of hardwood, often rock maple, laminated together and sealed against moisture penetration.

  94. Butt seam

    The most common (and easily achieved) type of seam in wallpapering, in which two strips are placed edge to edge without any overlap. After forming a butt seam, roll it gently with a seam roller to secure it in place. Recheck the seam after 10 minutes and roll again if necessary.

  95. Butt-edged wood tiles

    Tiles with flat edges along all sides.

Cabriole - Cutting-in

  1. Cabriole

    A double-curve or reverse S-shaped furniture leg that leads down to an elaborate foot (usually a ball-and-claw type).

  2. Cadmium orange

    One of the basic pigments, cadmium orange is made from cadmium sulphide and cadmium selenide.

  3. Caking

    When pigment settles hard on the bottom of the paint can.

  4. Calcimine

    A water- thinned paint composed essentially of calcium carbonate (chalk) and glue.
  5. Calcium Carbonate

    A natural mineral used in lime, cement, and paints as a colorant and a pigment extender. Its common name is chalk.
  6. Calcium Hypochlorite

    Household bleach. Effective in killing mildew spores prior to coating.

  7. Carborundum stone

    Coarse-grit, silicone-carbide whetstone used to smooth rough-cut edges of ceramic tile. Also called a Crystolon or India stone.

  8. Carcase

    The framework or body of a cabinet or piece of casegood furniture.

  9. Carpenters wood glue

    Aliphatic resin glue that is the adhesive of choice for bonding wood to wood.

  10. Casegood furniture

    Furniture such as bureaus and cabinets (casegoods) designed to contain things in drawers or behind doors as opposed to furniture that stands, such as tables and chairs.

  11. Casegoods

    A piece of furniture used for storage, including cabinets, dressers and desks.

  12. Casein paint

    An old-fashioned paint made by mixing pigments with milk solids. It is seldom used today except on furniture where a faded look is desired.

  13. Casement window

    A window that consists of one framed-glass panel and is hinged on the side. It swings outward from the opening at the turn of a crank.

  14. Casing

    The trim that is used to line the inside and outside of a doorway or window frame.

  15. Cast

    A tinge, a slight deviation from the norm in color or appearance. The term is most often applied to color, and refers to a small difference in hue. For example, four pure hues are generally recognized: red, green, blue and yellow. Each is unique and contains no quality of the others. If a blue hue seems to contain some element of green, that blue is said to have a green "cast."

  16. Catalyst

    A chemical used to change the rate of a chemical reaction. Differs from a curing agent/hardener in that the catalyst is not itself chemically consumed in the reaction while a curing agent is.

  17. Catalytic Coating

    A coating that cures as the result of a chemical reaction. For example, a two-part epoxy where a hardener must be added to obtain the required results.

  18. Cathedral ceiling

    Angled surfaces of a structure's roof framing that are reflected in the finished ceiling. These are typically found when there is an open floor plan in the first story.

  19. Cathode

    The negative terminal of an electrolytic cell which, in the corrosion process, is protected and not attacked.

  20. Cathodic Protection

    The reduction or prevention of corrosion of a metal surface caused by making it cathodic. This is accomplished by using a sacrificial anode (such as in zinc rich coatings or galvanizing) or by using impressed current.

  21. Cat's eye

    Any discontinuity, bare, or thin spot in a painted area. Also called "cat face”.

  22. Caulk

    A soft compound for sealing joints and cracks against leaks (of water, air and noise). It may be silicone, neoprene or one of a variety of other synthetic compounds.

  23. Caustic

    A strong base or alkaline material with a pH of 7 to 14.

  24. Caustic Embrittlement

    Cracking as a result of the combined action of tensile stresses and corrosion in alkaline solutions (as at riveted joints in boilers).

  25. Caustic Soda

    A common name for sodium hydroxide, a strong base or alkali.

  26. Cell

    A circuit consisting of an anode and a cathode in electrical contact in a solid or liquid electrolyte. Corrosion generally occurs only at anodic areas.

  27. Cellulose paste

    Odorless, non-staining paste derived from wood pulp, cotton or other fibrous plant material, used primarily to hang wallpapers made from natural materials such as grasscloths, linens and stringcloths.

  28. Cementitious Coatings

    A coating containing cement as a component, held on the surface by a binder.

  29. Center panels

    The vertical panels that make up the center partition of a laminated-particleboard storage unit, with holes drilled on both sides to hold adjustable shelving brackets.

  30. Centerline

    The dissecting line through the center of an object, such as a sink.

  31. Centipoise

    One hundredth of a poise which is a unit of measurement for viscosity. Water at room temperature has a viscosity of 1.0 Centipoise.

  32. Ceramic tile

    Fired clay tile that is hard and may be glazed or unglazed, 1 square inch or smaller to 1 square foot or larger in size, available in a profusion of colors, shapes, patterns and textures.

  33. CFC's

    Chlorofluorocarbons, a form of aerosol propellant no longer used in paint aerosols because of its ozone harming properties.

  34. Chain link fence

    Prefabricated fence consisting of metal poles and chain link mesh. These fences are durable and provide good security, but no privacy.

  35. Chair rail

    A piece of molding that runs around a room about 3-1/2 feet above the floor (approximately the height of a chair back). It evolved from wainscoting.

  36. Chaise lounge

    A chair with back support and a seat long enough for outstretched legs.

  37. Chalk line

    The mark left by a chalked line that was stretched taut between two points just above a flat surface before being pulled up in the center and allowed to snap back, leaving a straight chalked mark.

  38. Chalking

    Paint failure marked by a layer of fine dust on the surface of the paint. Occurs with time as weather conditions break down the paint film.

  39. Chalkline

    A cord that is rubbed with or drawn through chalk and stretched taut between two points, just above a surface. It is pulled up in the center and released so that it snaps down, leaving a straight line marked on the surface between the end points.

  40. Chalk-line box

    A tool used to establish a plumb or horizontal line on a wall. Wallpaper installers sometimes replace the line in a chalk-line box with a cloth fishing line for a more refined line and a minimum of chalk on the wall. For wall-paper applications, a light-colored chalk is preferable.

  41. Chamfer

    A square edge cut equally on one or both sides of a piece of wood so as to form a bevel.

  42. Check - in lumber

    A defect in lumber caused by a separation lengthwise between the wood's growth rings.

  43. Checking

    A kind of paint failure in which many small cracks appear in the surface of the paint.

  44. Cheesecloth

    A loosely woven, coarse cotton gauze used to create different textures as well as to blend and smooth wet paint over a surface.

  45. Cheesecloth distressing

    The technique of blending and softening wet paint strokes and colors by pouncing bunched-up cheesecloth over a surface.

  46. Chemical stripper

    A paint removing agent. Usually applied with a brush, but may be embedded in a plastic-covered poultice that is laid on a surface then pulled off.

  47. Chime

    The chime is the area of the lip or rim of a paint can to which the lid seals.

  48. China bristles

    Natural bristles used in the manufacture of paintbrushes for solvent-based paints.

  49. Chip Resistance

    Measure of a paint’s ability to resist chipping.

  50. Chipping

    The breaking away of small portion of the paint film due to its inability to flex under impact or with thermal expansion and contraction of the substrate. It is usually caused by the use of too brittle a film or poor adhesion to the base material.

  51. Chroma

    Color intensity or purity of tone, being the degree of freedom from gray.

  52. Chromated Copper Arsenic - CCA

    A chemical used to treat lumber under high pressure so the wood can resist decay.

  53. Chromatic

    That which is perceived as having a hue (not white, gray, or black).

  54. Chrome green

    A variety of green pigments made from chrome yellow and iron (Prussian) blue.

  55. Chrome orange

    One of the basic pigments, this orange-red pigment is made from lead chromate and lead oxides.

  56. Chrome yellow

    One of the basic pigments, this yellow pigment is made from lead chromate combined with lead sulfate.

  57. Circular saw

    A hand-held power saw consisting of a circular disk, usually with a toothed edge.

  58. Circular shelves

    Rotating shelves that make it easy to reach items in the rear section of a corner cabinet; also referred to as a Lazy Susan.

  59. Clad wood window

    A composite window made of wood and encased by vinyl; requires little maintenance and is energy-efficient.

  60. Clamp

    A tool that holds pieces of wood or other items together.

  61. Clamshell digger

    A hand tool composed of two hinged, shovel-like parts that loosen soil and then grasp it for removal from postholes.

  62. Clarity

    The characteristic of a transparent material whereby distinct images may be observed through it.

  63. Clay based adhesive

    A starch adhesive that includes heavy solids to enhance holding power. This type of adhesive can stain or cause the ink to flake off many types of wallpapers. Because clay-based adhesive does not dry as quickly as other types of adhesives, take special care to smooth the wallpaper evenly during installation.

  64. Cleanability

    The ability of a dry film coat to maintain its original appearance after repeated washing with soap and water.

  65. Cleaners

    A detergent, alkali, acid, or similar contamination removing material.

  66. Cleanup center

    The area of a kitchen where the sink, waste disposer, trash compactor, dishwasher and related accessories are grouped for easy access and efficient use.

  67. Clear

    A grade of redwood that is free from knots and may contain sapwood. Clear wood is recommended for highly visible applications where the wood is not subject to rot.

  68. Clear Coating

    A transparent protective and/or decorative film; generally the final coat of sealer applied to finishes.

  69. Clear finish

    Any of a number of wood finishes that allow the wood grain and color to be seen.

  70. Clear grade

    A grade of lumber or trim that has no knots or other visible defects.

  71. Clear top coat

    A transparent finishing layer of protection applied over a decorated surface.

  72. Closed grain wood

    Wood such as maple and birch that has small, tight pores and a smooth surface when sanded.

  73. Closed riser

    A kind of staircase with risers installed between treads.

  74. Cloudy Clouding

    When a finishing material is turbid (cloudy), due to the suspension of finely divided solid particles.

  75. Coal Tar

    A dark brown to black bituminous material produced by the destructive distillation of coal.

  76. Coalescence

    The formation of resinous or polymeric material when water evaporates from an emulsion or a latex system, permitting contact and fusion of adjacent particles. The fusing together of an emulsion film upon evaporation of water.

  77. Coalescent Aid

    The small amount of solvent contained in latex coatings. Not a true solvent since it does not actually dissolve the latex resins, the coalescent aid simply helps the latex resins to flow together (coalesce).

  78. Coat

    The paint applied to a surface in a single application to form a film when dry.

  79. Coating

    A paint, varnish, lacquer or other finish used to create a protective and/or decorative layer.

  80. Coating System

    A number of coats separately applied, in a predetermined order, at suitable intervals to allow for drying and curing, resulting in a completed job.

  81. Cobwebbing

    The tendency of spray paint to form strings or strands rather than droplets as it leaves the gun, causing a spider web effect. May be caused by too volatile a solvent or too little air pressure.

  82. Coefficient of Friction

    The measure of the relative difficulty with which the surface of one material will slide over an adjacent surface or another material.

  83. Cohesion

    The attractive force between like molecules. It is the force that holds the molecules of a paint film or other substance together.

  84. Cold Checking

    Checks or cracks which appear in the dried film when it is subjected to repeated, sudden, and appreciable reductions in temperature.

  85. Cold chisel

    A heavy, blunt-edged chisel used in masonry work, typically for chipping or breaking up brick, stone, concrete, ceramic tile and other masonry materials.

  86. Cold Rolled Steel

    Low carbon, cold-reduced, sheet steel. Differs from hot rolled steel by the absence of mill scale.

  87. Colloid

    Material composed of ultramicroscopic particles of a solid, liquid, or gas dispersed in a different medium which can be a solid, liquid, or gas.

  88. Colonial style

    An early-American architectural and decorative style during the Colonial period that was influenced by design ideas brought by settlers from Europe, particularly England. This basic and functional style initially featured a minimum of ornament but became more elaborate with the prosperity of the Colonies.

  89. Color

    A generic term referring inclusively to visible lightwaves in the spectrum, and white and black. Color is described by three properties: hue, lightness, and saturation:

  90. Color Difference

    The magnitude and character of the difference between two object colors under specific conditions

  91. Color Fast

    Non-fading in prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation.

  92. Color Float

    When one or more colors, different from the original color, appear on the surface after the finishing material has been applied, it is said to have a color float. This is different from in can float.

  93. Color intensity

    Strength of a color.

  94. Color Rendition Index - CRI

    Measures the way a light source renders color. The higher the index number, the closer color resembles how it appears in sunlight.

  95. Color Retention

    The ability of paint to keep its original color. Major threats to color retention are exposure to ultraviolet radiation and abrasion by weather or repeated cleaning.

  96. Color Retention

    The ability of paint to keep its original color. Major threats to color retention are exposure to ultraviolet radiation and abrasion by weather or repeated cleaning.

  97. Color scheme

    A group of colors used together to create visual harmony in a space.

  98. Color uniformity

    Ability of a coating to maintain a uniform or consistent color across its entire surface, particularly during the weathering process.

  99. Color value

    The lightness or darkness of a color.

  100. Color washing

    The technique of applying layers of heavily thinned glaze to a surface to produce a faded, transparent wash of color.

  101. Color way

    The different color schemes that are manufactured using the same wallpaper pattern. Manufacturers usually print a wallpaper pattern in two or more different color ways.

  102. Color wheel

    A pie-shaped diagram showing the range and relationships of pigment and dye colors. Three equidistant wedge-shaped slices are the primaries; in between are the secondary and tertiary colors into which the primaries combine. Though represented as discrete slices, the hues form a continuum.

  103. Colorant

    Concentrated color that can be added to paints to make specific colors.

  104. Column

    A wood or metal vertical support member.

  105. Combing

    Any paint technique that involves marking narrow lines of color on a surface. Also called "strié" or "dragging." Combing techniques that specifically intend to imitate wood are called wood-graining techniques.

  106. Combustible Liquid

    Any liquid having a flash point between 100° and 180°F.

  107. Compatibility

    Ability of two or more materials to mix with each other without separation or to adhere properly to other surfaces without detriment.

  108. Complementary colors

    Hues directly opposite each other on the color wheel. As the strongest contrasts, complements tend to intensify each other. A color can be grayed by mixing it with its complement.

  109. Complementary Harmony

    A color scheme produced by using complementary or contrasting colors, sometimes in combination with their tints and shades.

  110. Composite board

    Panel material similar to plywood but made up of reconstituted wood particles at its core and sometimes softwood veneer on its faces.

  111. Compound miter

    A cut that angles in two directions simultaneously.

  112. Compound miter saw

    A power saw that can cut angles in two directions simultaneously.

  113. Compressed air sprayer

    An electric sprayer that emits a fine mist of paint by forcing air through a paint reservoir.

  114. Concentration Cell

    A cell involving an electrolyte and two identical electrodes, with the potential resulting from differences in the chemistry of the environments adjacent to the two electrodes.

  115. Concentration Polarization

    Polarization of an electrode caused by concentration changes in the environment adjacent to the metal surface.

  116. Concrete

    Concrete consists of a mixture of cement, sand, aggregate and water. Concrete continues to harden over a long period of time and becomes harder and stronger with age, although it is subject to cracking under the pressure of heat, cold and water.

  117. Concrete block

    A masonry unit which consists of an outside shell with a hollow center that is divided by two or three vertical webs. The ends of the unit may have flanges that accept mortar and join with adjacent blocks, or they may have smooth ends for corners and the ends of walls.

  118. Concrete pavers

    Commonly used for patios and walks, concrete pavers come in a number of shapes and colors and are designed to be laid in a sand base without mortar; some interlock to form repeating patterns.

  119. Condensation

    Moisture that forms when warm, moist air comes into contact with a cool surface. Usually found on windows and skylights, condensation is only a problem in heavy amounts, when it can lead to leaks.

  120. Conditioner

    A coating additive that increases flow, adhesion and coverage without altering the color or durability of the coating. Used especially when spraying.

  121. Conical Mandrel

    An instrument used to evaluate a coating's resistance to cracking when bent over a specified radius.

  122. Consistency

    Relative stiffness, body, or resistance to agitation or deformation of a coating composition in bulk; the property may be a composite of plasticity, viscosity, yield value, and thixotropy.

  123. Contact Angle

    The angle that is formed where a liquid meets a solid surface.

  124. Contact cement

    A rubber-based liquid glue that bonds on contact; often used for applying veneers.

  125. Contemporary

    Any modern design (after 1920) that does not contain traditional elements of the past.

  126. Contemporary style

    A style of decoration or architecture that is modern and pertains to what is current.

  127. Contrast

    The art of assembling colors with different values and intensities and in different proportions to create a dynamic scheme.

  128. Contrast Ratio

    A measure of opacity. The ratio of the luminous reflectance of a specimen backed with black material of specified reflectance to reflectance of the same specimen backed with white material of specified reflectance.

  129. Contrasting color scheme

    A combination involving choices from opposite sides of the color wheel. Strong contrasts create dynamic schemes, though muted or tinted versions are more harmonious.

  130. Control

    A material having a known history, the performance of which has been established previously, and which is used as a standard of comparison.

  131. Conventional Sprayer

    A power paint sprayer which uses compressed air (produced by an air compressor) to force paint onto a surface.

  132. Conversion Coating

    A metal surface layer intentionally developed by chemical reaction for the purpose of protection or looks.

  133. Cooktop

    A unit containing a group of burners, gas, electric or magnetic-induction and perhaps a grill or ventilator.

  134. Cool colors

    A loose division of the color wheel that includes the range of blues, greens, blue-greens and blue-violets. Cool colors, particularly when pale, tend to be retreating colors.

  135. Coordinating wallpaper

    A wallpaper that blends with another wallpaper, whether by color, design or other factors. Coordinating wallpapers can visually tie together two rooms or adjacent walls in the same room. Sometimes they are used over and under chairs rails as companions.

  136. Coping

    Stones, bricks or other individual masonry units used as a finished edging around the pond perimeter. Coping can be set loose or mortared in place.

  137. Copolymer

    A chemical formed by interaction of two or more different types of molecules. Large molecules obtained by simultaneous polymerization of different monomers, as in vinyl copolymers.

  138. Copolymerization

    Often called catalyzed or two component urethanes, these cure by the addition of a co-reactant (catalyst) to the isocyanate-containing component. Mixing, induction time, and pot life vary according to the type of isocyanate and catalyst used.

  139. Copper

    Used as an additive in anti-fouling paints, copper kills marine animals and plants that attach to boat hulls, docks and other below water level objects

  140. Copper Staining

    Usually caused by corrosion of copper screens, gutters or downspouts washing down on painted surfaces. Can be prevented by painting or varnishing the copper.

  141. Corner guard

    Trim that protects the outside corners of drywall or plaster in high-traffic areas.

  142. Cornice

    The decorative wood box or molding affixed over a window. It may be painted, wallpapered or covered with fabric.

  143. Correlated Color Temperature - CCT

    Compares the warmth or coolness of light as it is produced, or the source as it appears to the viewer.

  144. Corrosion

    The decay, oxidation or deterioration of a substance due to interaction with the environment or chemical reaction.

  145. Corrosion - Erosion

    Corrosion which is increased because of the abrasive action of a moving stream; the presence of suspended particles greatly accelerates abrasive action.

  146. Corrosion - Filiform

    A special type of corrosion that occurs under coatings on metal substrates and is characterized by a definite thread-like structure and directional growth.

  147. Corrosion Fatigue

    The combined action of corrosion and fatigue (cyclic stressing) in causing metal fracture.

  148. Corrosion Potential

    The potential that a corroding metal exhibits under specific conditions of concentration, time, temperature, aeration, velocity, etc.

  149. Corrosion Rate

    The speed (usually an average) with which corrosion progresses; often expressed as though it was linear, in units of mdd (milligrams per square decimeter per day) for weight change, or mpy (mils per year) for thickness changes.

  150. Corrosion Resistant

    A paint or primer that aides in the prevention of corrosion. Commonly applied to metals. An insulator against water vapor and airborne contaminants such as chloride compounds.

  151. Corrosive

    An acidic material with a pH of 0 to 7.

  152. Cottonseed oil

    A semi-drying oil obtained from the seeds of many types of plants of the genus Gossyprum. As oil, rarely used in paint, but fatty acids used in manufacturers of alkyd resins.

  153. Countertop

    The work surface of a counter, island or peninsula, usually 36-inches high. It may be wood, plastic laminate, ceramic tile, marble, slate or solid surface (acrylic).

  154. Countertop trim tile

    Tile that is set on the outside edge of a countertop. It has a raised lip to prevent liquids from spilling over the edge.

  155. Couple

    A cell developed in an electrolyte resulting from electrical contact between two dissimilar metals.

  156. Cove

    1. A built-in recess in a wall or ceiling that conceals an indirect light source. 2. A concave recessed molding that is usually found where the wall meets the ceiling or floor.

  157. Cove base tile

    Trim tile that makes a smooth joint between a wall and a floor or other surface.

  158. Cove molding

    A molding with a concave face used as trim or finish for interior corners.

  159. Cove tile

  160. Coved ceiling

  161. Coverage

    Hiding power of a paint usually expressed in square feet per gallon.

  162. Cracking

    Splitting of a paint film usually as a result of aging. Fracture of a metal in a brittle manner along a single or branched path. It can also be caused by subsurface expansion under a brittle topcoat.

  163. Cratering

    That defect in a coating application which results in craters or "fish eyes." Often caused by the presence of grease, oil, silicon polishes or other similar contaminants on the surface.

  164. Crawl space

    A low space above or below the house, just tall enough to permit such work as jacking up a sagging ground floor from below or installing ceiling fixtures above.

  165. Crawling

    The tendency of a liquid to draw up into drops or globules as a result of an abnormally high degree of surface tension.

  166. Crazing

    A mild form of alligatoring, characterized by small cracks in the finish.

  167. Creasing technique

    The act of making a crease in wallpaper using a trimming tool or putty knife. Creasing is useful to establish a trim mark in tight places, such as around a door frame or along a ceiling line lacking crown molding.

  168. Creeping

    Spontaneous spreading of a liquid on a surface. In the case of applied paint, or other coating, it refers to the spread of the wet film beyond the area to which it was applied.

  169. Creosote

    A wood preservative that is not available for use around the home because of its toxic nature.

  170. Crevice Corrosion

    Localized corrosion resulting from the formation of a concentration cell in a crevice formed between a metal and a nonmetal, or between two metal surfaces.

  171. Cross Coat Spraying

    Spraying the first pass in one direction and the second at a right angle to the first, providing more even film distribution.

  172. Cross seaming

    The lattice-type arrangement that results when you install a wallpaper liner horizontally and a decorative wallcovering vertically.

  173. Crosscut

    A straight cut that runs across the grain of the wood. Because the grain of trim runs along the length of the piece, a crosscut would be made across the width of the trim.

  174. Crosscut saw

    A saw used for cutting across the grain of wood.

  175. Crosslinking

    The setting up of chemical links between molecular chains to form a three dimensional network of connected molecules.

  176. Crown molding

    A decorative molding attached to a wall at ceiling height, usually used in conjunction with paneled walls.

  177. Crystallization

    Solid matter that forms in an adhesive when the temperature falls below 50 degrees F. Crystallization can also result from installing wallpaper over a porous wall.

  178. Cup

    A distortion in wood across the grain caused by warpage.

  179. Cure

    The period of time that concrete, tile adhesive or grout must be left in order for it to reach full strength.

  180. Curing

    The process by which concrete becomes solid and develops strength. Proper moisture reduces cracking and shrinkage.

  181. Curing Agent

    A hardener or activator added to a synthetic resin to develop the proper film forming properties.

  182. Curing-out period

    The time it takes for a primer-sealer or wallpaper adhesive to completely dry.
  183. Curtains

    Long horizontal runs in a coating film that occur on vertical surfaces when a coating is applied too heavily.

  184. Custom-built storage systems

    Shelving and storage systems that are built to order.

  185. Cut

    To dilute or thin a paint, varnish or stain with solvents (or waters).

  186. Cutters

    Short, stiff-bristled brushes used to cut in lines, such as in corners and around trim.

  187. Cutting-in

    Painting by brush those areas of a surface that cannot be reached with a paint roller.

Daybed - Dusting brushes

  1. Daybed

    A bed made up to appear as a sofa. It usually has a frame that consists of a headboard, a footboard and a sideboard along the back.
  2. Dead Flat

    No gloss or sheen.

  3. Dead Space

    Wasted space in closets, under staircases, in corners and under furniture that is suitable for storage.
  4. Decay

    The destruction of wood by bacteria, fungi and the like.
  5. Decorative Painting

    Paint process in which a semitransparent glaze color is manipulated to create a pattern which highlights a solid base color underneath.
  6. Decorative Surface

    The top layer of the wallpaper. Manufactures often coat the printed surfaces with a clear solution or laminate to add extra protection.
  7. Decoupage medium

    A smooth and glossy gluelike liquid used to apply cut-out paper or fabric images to a surface or an object. It is used as both an adhesive and a top coat.
  8. Defect

    Any irregularity occurring in or on a material.
  9. Defoamer

    Product used for controlling undesirable foam.
  10. Deglossing

    Roughing up a surface before painting so that it has "tooth," a texture that grabs paint.
  11. Degreaser

    A chemical solution or compound designed to remove grease, oils and similar contaminants.
  12. Deionized Water

    Water which contains no ions. Usually produced through the use of ion exchange resins and used for rinsing parts after wet sanding or electro-deposition.
  13. Delamination

    A condition where wallpaper backing separates from the top or intermediate layer of vinyl. One frequent cause is excessive soaking. Some wallpaper, such as grasscloth and stringcloth, should relax only 3 to 5 minutes before installation.
  14. Denatured alcohol

    A solvent used to thin shellac.
  15. Depth

    An effect that wallpaper creates in a room regarding its size. If a room is papered in light colors, it appears visibly larger. Darker or bolder colors make the room appear smaller.
  16. Depth of finish

    A desirable visual impression which is illustrated by viewing a thick film of varnish of excellent smoothness or evenness.
  17. Descaling

    The removal of mill scale or rust from steel by mechanical means, sometimes assisted by flame cleaning.

  18. Design - wallpapering

    The decorative composition printed onto wallpaper. The recurring design elements determine the vertical and horizontal repeats within a wallpaper.

  19. Dew Point

    The temperature of a surface, at a given ambient temperature and relative humidity, at which condensation of moi

  20. DFT

    Dry film thickness.

  21. Diagonal pattern

    A pattern that appears at a slant; an oblique pattern.

  22. Diagonal pattern effect

    An effect that becomes noticeable after you install small-scale or some large-scale patterns on a large wall. The effect may not be evident in a small catalog sample or on a single strip of wallpaper.

  23. Diagonal pattern sequence

    The diagonal recurrence of a pattern or design across the wall surface. For example, the diagonal sequence of a half-drop match pattern repeats itself at an angle exactly one-half the distance of the vertical repeat.

  24. Dilatency

    The properties of some materials in which the resistance to flow increases with agitation.

  25. Diluent

    A material blended with an active solvent in an organic coating to increase its volume and/or reduce its viscosity.

  26. Dipping

    A treatment where wood is immersed in a bath of sealant for several minutes, then allowed to air-dry. A sealant helps to prevent moisture damage to boards.

  27. Directional print

    A pattern or design on wallpaper or a border that must be installed in a particular direction in order to appear pleas

  28. Discoloration

    Any departure from the appearance of the original color.

  29. Disk faucet

    A faucet containing plastic or ceramic disks that move up and down to regulate water flow and rotate to control wa

  30. Disparate patterns

    Two or more patterns that are each distinct, placed in juxtaposition. An example might be plaids and floral prints. You should carefully consider continuity when you want to install disparate patterns. They could easily clash or distract from the overall appearance of the room.

  31. Dispersion

    The suspension of tiny particles, usually pigments, in a liquid, usually resin. Any heterogeneous system of solids, gasses, or liquids.

  32. Distemper

    An old-fashioned type of interior paint made with a casein or gelatin/glue size binder.

  33. Distilled water

    Water which has been purified by vaporizing the liquid and collecting the vapor which is then condensed back to a liquid having, in the process, removed the contaminants.

  34. Distinctness of image

    The sharpness with which image outlines are reflected by the surface of an object.

  35. Distressed finish

    A decorative paint technique in which the final paint coat is sanded and battered to produce an aged appearance.

  36. Distressing

    A finishing process that adds dents, scratches, burns and other indications of wear and age to furniture for decorative purposes.

  37. Door sill

    The same as a threshold. A piece of lumber beveled along each edge and nailed to a floor to cover a floor joint or to mark a door passageway.

  38. Door sweep

    Weatherstripping that mounts to the bottom of the door. It consists of an extruded aluminum strip that holds a flexible vinyl strip.

  39. Dormer

    A window set upright in a sloping roof, and the roofed projection in which the window is set. There are a variety of styles including gable, shed and eyebrow. Dormers afford increased headroom, natural light from windows, and increased ventilation.

  40. Double-hung window

    A window that consists of two framed-glass panels that slide open vertically, guided by a metal or wood track.

  41. Double-split complementaries

    Colors on either side of two complementary colors on the color wheel.

  42. Downdraft booth

    A spray booth in which the air movement is from the ceiling through the floor.

  43. Downlighting

    A lighting technique where objects or areas are illuminated from above.

  44. Dragging

    A technique that involves pulling a special long-bristled brush through wet paint or glaze to create fine lines or narrow stripes.

  45. Drier

    A catalytic material which, when added to a drying oil or drying oil modified coating, accelerates the rate of drying. A substance which speeds the reaction of binder with oxygen. Naphthenates of lead, cobalt, and manganese are common driers.

  46. Dries To Handle

    The degree of cure at which a film will resist deformation due to handling.

  47. Dries To Touch

    The state of dry at which a coating film will not transfer onto an item touched lightly against it.

  48. Drip course

    First course of shingles at the eaves.

  49. Dry colors

    Powder-type colors to be mixed with water, alcohol, or mineral spirits and resin to form a paint or stain.

  50. Dry dust free

    That stage of drying when particles of dust that land on the surface do not stick to the paint film.

  51. Dry fall coating

    A coating which is designed to dry rapidly so that the overspray can be easily removed from the surfaces below. The overspray must fall a certain distance at specified temperatures and humidities for it to be dry upon landing.d

  52. Dry rot

    Decay from fungi that causes wood to become brittle and crumble to powder.

  53. Dry spray

    Overspray or bounce back producing a sandy finish due to the sprayed particles having partially dried before reaching the surface. Dry spray has a lower gloss than the normal surface.

  54. Dry tack free

    That stage of drying when the paint no longer feels sticky or tacky when lightly touched.

  55. Dry time

    Time allotted for an applied coating film to reach a set stage of cure or hardness.

  56. Dry Time

    Time allotted for an applied coating film to reach a set stage of cure or hardness.

  57. Dry to handle

    The degree of cure at which a film will resist deformation due to handling.

  58. Dry to recoat

    The time required for a film to dry prior to the application of a second coat.

  59. Dry to tack free

    A stage at which a coating film will form a skin to which dust will not adhere.

  60. Dry to touch

    The state of dry at which a coating film will not transfer onto an item touched lightly against it.

  61. Drying

    The act of changing from a liquid film to a solid film by the evaporation of solvents, oxidation, polymerization or by a combination of these phenomena.

  62. Drying oil

    An oil having the property of hardening by oxidation to a tough film when exposed to air in the form of a thin film.

  63. Drying period

    The time that it takes for a primer-sealer to completely dry. Different types of wall conditions, adhesive viscosity and humidity levels will affect the drying period. Some conditions may cause the drying to take longer, such as high humidity, a nonporous wall surface, the viscosity of the adhesive and use of a nonbreathable wallpaper.

  64. Drying Time

    The time required for a coating to attain various stages of dryness. Three commonly referred-to drying times are: dry to touch, dry to handle and dry hard (re-coat). Drying time is greatly affected by temperature and humidity.

  65. Drywall

    Also known as wallboard or gypsum board, a paper covered panel of compressed gypsum used as the primary wall covering in almost all homes. It can be finished to look like a plaster wall or used to support other wallcoverings.

  66. Dull rubbed effect

    Mostly a furniture finish, where gloss is rubbed to a mar- free dull finish with sandpaper, pumice or steelwool and either oil or water.

  67. Durability

    The ability of coatings to hold up against destructive agents such as weather, air pollution, sunlight, detergents, abrasion, or marring and continue to look attractive.

  68. Dusting brushes

    Soft, medium-length brushes used for combing, stippling and softening textures.

Earth tones - External Mix/Atomization

  1. Earth tones

    The natural colors of earth; browns and beiges.

  2. Edging

    Act of striping in or painting near the edge of a surface, such as the wall intersection at ceiling, doorway, or window.

  3. Effervescence

    An effect in the film caused by rapid solvent release. This "boiling" of solvent causes a pinholed or cratered appearance reducing gloss.

  4. Efflorescence

    Water soluble salts, deposited as moisture evaporates, on the exterior of brick or concrete. These are usually sodium salts that diffuse through the paint film from the substrate.

  5. Eggshell

    A thin, brittle semi-matte paint finish.

  6. Elcometer

    A trademark and brand name for a magnetic instrument for measuring dry film thickness of coatings applied to steel surfaces.

  7. Electrostatic Spray

    The spray application of paint where the particles are charged causing them to be electrically attracted to the grounded surface.

  8. Embossed paper

    Wallpaper with a raised, textured pattern. Embossed wallpapers are useful when installing over imperfect wall conditions, as they will camouflage contours on an uneven wall. Do not use a seam roller on embossed papers because it can flatten or burnish the raised effect and cause a shiny streak to appear.

  9. Embrittlement

    Severe loss of ductility of a metal or alloy.

  10. Emulsifier

    A material which when added to a mixture of dissimilar materials, such as oil and water, will produce a stable, homogenous emulsion.

  11. Emulsion

    A two phase liquid system in which small droplets of one liquid are immiscible in and are dispersed uniformly throughout a second liquid.

  12. Enamel

    Paint with finely ground pigments and a high binder content so that it dries to a hard gloss or semi-gloss finish.

  13. Ending point

    The point where the wallpaper stops at an obstacle. Examples include fireplaces, accent walls and kitchen cabinets.

  14. Epoxy

    A two-part compound used to fill holes in damaged wood. Once dry, epoxy patches are very strong and can be sanded, primed and painted.

  15. Epoxy adhesive

    Adhesive based on an epoxy (or epoxide) resin or several such resins. They are of limited use in furniture-making but come in handy for quick repairs.

  16. Epoxy Ester

    Single-component modified epoxy resin good for mild corrosive environments. They provide superior resistance to moisture and abrasion.

  17. Epoxy Resin

    A synthetic resin produced by the reaction of epichlorohydrin and bisphenol. Epoxy resins may be used alone (unmodified) or modified with drying oils (epoxy esters) for coating vehicles.

  18. Erosion

    Deterioration of a surface by the abrasive action of moving materials - fluids or particles. This is accelerated by the presence of solid particles or gas bubbles in suspension.

  19. Ester

    Compounds formed by the reaction of alcohols and organic acids.

  20. Etching

    Scratching or roughening an existing wallpaper surface to prepare it for the application of a wallpaper-removing solution. The etching of the vinyl-coated surface allows the solution to penetrate through the wallpaper and dissolve the old adhesive to aid in the removal of the existing wallpaper.

  21. Evaporation Loss Solvents

    A solvent whose volatility is high. Used to reduce the flash-off time of a paint to combat sagging on cool days.

  22. Evaporation Rate

    The speed with which a solvent volatizes or evaporates. It is frequently expressed as the time required for 1 cc. of solvent to evaporate after being poured onto filter paper.

  23. Exposure

    The intensity, duration and variation in sun, wind and temperature that characterize any particular site.

  24. Extender Pigments

    Pigments used to provide texture, bulk or hardness to a coating. Also known as inert pigments. Magnesium silicate and diatomaceous silica are examples of extender pigments.

  25. Extenders

    Inert pigments used to extend or increase the bulk of a paint. Extenders are also used to adjust the consistency of a paint and to let down colored pigments of great tinting strength.. Extenders sometimes improve certain characteristics of a film.

  26. External Mix/Atomization

    Using air to break up a coating material after it has exited the spray gun nozzle.

Facade - Fungicide

  1. Facade

    The exterior front of a building.

  2. Face frame

    A frame of stiles and rails that is applied to the face of a cabinet for style and strength. The face frame is often used to hide plywood edges.

  3. Face rusting

    The appearance of rust on an apparently unblemished painted surface.

  4. Faceplate

    The decorative plate installed over a switch or receptacle. The plate also covers the wall opening and thus protects the wiring.

  5. Factory edge

    The edge finish put on wood and panels at the mill.

  6. Fading

    The gradual loss of color of a paint film due to a chemical or physical change. Usually due to pigment degradation by the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight.

  7. False body

    Thixotropic flow property of a suspension or dispersion. A composition which thins down on stirring is said to exhibit false body.

  8. Fan pattern

    The geometry of a spray pattern.

  9. Faraday cage effect

    The phenomenon by which charged particles are prevented from entering recessed areas. It is due to the curvature of electric force lines to the nearest grounded surface.

  10. Fatigue

    A process leading to fracture resulting from repeated stress cycles well below the normal tensile strength. Such failures start as tiny cracks which grow to cause total failure.

  11. Fatty acids

    Commonly produced by chemical splitting of fats and oils with glycerin as a by-product. The long chains of drying oil fatty acids have points of reactivity though which two chains join during drying and thereby change a film from liquid to solid.

  12. Faux

    The French word for "false." With regard to painting finishes, it is used to describe any technique in which paint is manipulated on a surface to imitate the appearance of another substance, such as wood or stone.

  13. Faux finish

    A decorative paint technique that imitates a pattern found in nature, such as marble or wood.

  14. Faux painting

    Various painting techniques that mimic wood, marble and other stones.

  15. Feather edge

    Reduced film thickness at the edge of a dry paint film in order to produce a smooth, continuous appearance.

  16. Feathering

    The process of laying down a wide, thin layer of joint compound over a seam and sanding it gradually into the wallboard at the edges so that the mound of compound seems flat.

  17. Feature strip

    A long, narrow resilient tile trim piece often interspersed in a resilient tile floor to provide contrast and design.

  18. Federal

    An architectural and decorative style popular in America during the early nineteenth century, featuring delicate ornamentation, usually of swags and urns, and symmetrically arranged rooms.

  19. Feel

    The working quality of a paint: how it spreads, covers, and dries. Painters like to use a paint that "feels" right to them.

  20. Ferrous metal primer

    Specially formulated primer applied to iron-bearing metal. Commonly needed for gutters and flashing.

  21. Ferrule

    The metal part of a paintbrush that holds the bristles to the handle.

  22. Filler

    A material, usually containing considerable quantities of pigment, used to build up or fill depressions and imperfections on the surface.

  23. Filler coat

    The middle or second coat of joint compound in a three-coat application.

  24. Film

    A layer of coating or paint.

  25. Film build

    The dry film thickness characteristics of a coat.

  26. Film integrity

    The continuity of a coating free of defects.

  27. Film thickness gauge

    A device for measuring wet or dry film thickness.

  28. Filter

    Cloth or other media used to remove particles from a liquid substance.

  29. Fineness of grind

    The degree of dispersion of particles within a liquid.

  30. Fingernail test

    A physical test upon the dried film of a finishing material to denote the ease with which it can be marred, scratched, flaked or broken. The test is often performed by picking at the finish with the edge of the nail of the thumb or index finger.

  31. Finial

    A decorative element at the top of a post. You can purchase posts with precut finials, cut your own or purchase separate finials to attach to posts.

  32. Finish

    (1)Final coat in a painting system. (2)Sometimes refers to the entire coating system; the texture, color and smoothness of a surface, and other properties affecting appearance.

  33. Fire resistance

    The ability of a coating to withstand fire or to protect the substrate to which it is applied from fire damage.

  34. Fire retardant

    The ability of a coating to withstand fire or to protect the substrate to which it is applied from fire damage.

  35. Fish eye

    Small craters in a new finish that are the result of an adverse reaction between the finish and substances such as wax or oil on the surface.

  36. Fish oil

    Small craters in a new finish that are the result of an adverse reaction between the finish and substances such as wax or oil on the surface.

  37. Fixture

    Any fixed part of the structural design, such as tubs, bidets, toilets and lavatories.

  38. Flags

    A word describing bristles with split ends, which help hold the paint.

  39. Flakeboard

    The same as particleboard.

  40. Flaking

    The detachment of pieces of paint from the substrate, caused by a loss of adhesion and elasticity. Also known as scaling.

  41. Flammable

    A substance easily ignited in the presence of a flame; any liquid having a flash point below 100°F.

  42. Flammable liquids

    Any liquid having a flashpoint below 100° F.

  43. Flash point

    Lowest temperature at which a substance in an open vessel gives off enough vapors to produce a flash of fire when a flame is passed near the surface.

  44. Flashing

    (1) A paint defect in a paint film in which patches glossier than the general finish develop, especially at joints or laps in the coating. (2) The non-uniform appearance, including spotty differences in color or gloss, usually due to improper or non-uniform sealing of a porous substrate.

  45. Flash-off time

    Lowest temperature at which a substance in an open vessel gives off enough vapors to produce a flash of fire when a flame is passed near the surface.

  46. Flat

    A surface that scatters or absorbs the light falling on it so as to be substantially free from gloss or sheen.

  47. Flat finish

    The absence of sheen after a paint or finish dries.

  48. Flat grain

    Wood or veneer so sawed that the annual rings form an angle of less than 45 degrees with the surface of the piece.

  49. Flatting agent

    Pigment added to reduce gloss or give a "rubbed" look. Some flatting agents are zinc stearate, silica, and talc.

  50. Flexibility

    The degree to which a coating is able to conform to movement or deformation of its supporting surface without cracking or flaking.

  51. Float

    A long-handled tool used to smooth (darby) a concrete surface after screeding; requires two handlers.

  52. Floating

    The process of smoothing the surface of a pour with a float made of steel, aluminum, magnesium or wood. This action drives large aggregate below the surface.

  53. Flocculation

    Formation of clusters of particles separated by relatively weak mechanical forces or by change in physical forces at the interface between liquid and solid particles. May cause loss of tinting strength, hiding power or change flow properties.

  54. Flogger-dragger

    A wide, long-bristled brush that can be dragged through or slapped over wet paint or glaze to stimulate texture or to create a pattern.

  55. Flogging brushes

    Wide, long-bristled brushes used to texture surfaces by dragging or slapping wet paint or glaze. Also called draggers.

  56. Flooding

    The process of color change which a paint undergoes from the freshly applied material to the finished dried film.

  57. Floral patterns

    Any pattern or arrangement of flowers printed as the decorative surface of wallpaper or fabric.

  58. Flow

    The degree to which a wet paint film can level out after application so as to eliminate brush or roller marks and produce a smooth uniform finish.

  59. Flow coat

    A coat of finishing material applied to a vertical surface in an excessive amount, the surplus being allowed to flow down over the surface and drip off the bottom edge.

  60. Fluid tip

    The orifice in a spray gun to which the needle is seated.

  61. Fluorescent

    A class of pigments which, when exposed to visible light, emit light of a different wave length producing a bright appearance.

  62. Foam brush

    An 1- to 4-inch, taper-edged foam pad on a stick for applying stain and painting window muntins.

  63. Foam in a can

    Polyurethane foam sealant packaged in a pressure can. Used to fill irregular, hard-to-reach cracks and gaps that cannot be plugged effectively with caulks and gaskets.

  64. Focal point

    The first wall you see upon entering a room. To find the main focal wall in a room with multiple entries, you will have to determine the room's dominant flow of traffic.

  65. Folding attic stairways

    Ladder-like stairs easily pulled down to provide access to an attic.

  66. Folding stairs

    Stairs easily pulled down to provide access to an attic.

  67. Force drying

    The acceleration of drying by increasing the ambient temperature usually to between 100° and 150°F.

  68. Fouling

    Marine growth such as weeds or barnacles adhering to submerged surfaces.

  69. Frame door or window

  70. Framed cabinet

    A cabinet without a face frame. It may also be called a "European-style" cabinet.

  71. Frameless Cabinet

  72. Freeze-thaw resistance

    Extent to which water-based paints, utilizing synthetic latices or synthetic resin emulsions as vehicles (1) retain their original properties, free from detrimental changes in consistency, and (2) resist coagulation, or the formation of lumps and specks, when subjected to freezing and subsequent thawing.

  73. French polish

    A solution of shellac in alcohol used to give furniture a shiny finish. The alcohol evaporates to leave a thin coating of shellac on the piece.

  74. French Wash

    Painting in opaque watercolour. The pigment have a gum binder, and the filler is invariably some form of opaque white (such as clay or barite) which gives a typical 'chalky' look even to dark hue.

  75. Fretting

    Metal deterioration caused by repetitive slip at the interface between two surfaces.

  76. Frieze

    A horizontal band at the top of the wall or just below the cornice.

  77. Frieze board

    Trim board nailed horizontally on a building wall directly beneath rafters to provide a nailing surface for soffits and cornice trim.

  78. Frosting

    A white crystalline deposit that develops on the surface of a coating.

  79. Fungicidal paint

    Paint which discourages the growth of fungii on its dry applied film.

  80. Fungicide

    A substance poisonous to fungi which retards or kills mold and mildew growth.

Galvanic action - Gypsum

  1. Galvanic action

    An electrical process by which corrosive elements are leached from one metal substance and attracted to another.

  2. Galvanic Anode

    A metal which, when properly connected to metallic structures of different composition, will generate an electric current

  3. Galvanic Corrosion

    Corrosion associated with the current of a galvanic cell made up of dissimilar electrodes.

  4. Galvanic Series

    A list of metals arranged according to their relative corrosion potentials, in some specific environment.

  5. Galvanized

    Protected by a coating of zinc, either by immersion or electroplating.

  6. Galvanized mesh

    A material coated with zinc that is often used to make chain link.

  7. Galvanized Metal

    Process in which a thin coating of zinc is applied to iron or steel to prevent rust.

  8. Galvanizing

    To coat a metal with a thin layer of zinc to prevent rust. Galvanized nails are ideal for installing skylights, windows and exterior doors because of their superior strengthand corrosion-resistance.

  9. Gapped seam

    A small space between adjacent strips of wallpaper. Causes include improperly prepared walls, excessive force during installation and improper factory trimming.

  10. Garnet sandpaper

    An orange-colored sandpaper that is popular for sanding wood by hand.

  11. Gas Crazing

    The fine checking, wrinkling or frosting, of a tung oil or varnish film under certain drying conditions. It is said to be caused by rapid absorption of oxygen on the surface or by the presence of impurities in the atmosphere. Also termed "gas checking".

  12. Gate strike

    A piece attached to either side of the fence and to either the post or the gate. It keeps the gate from swinging past its closure point and bending the hinges.

  13. Gateleg-table

    A drop-leaf table supported by a gate-like leg that folds or swings out.

  14. Gazebo

    A freestanding structure intended to offer a panoramic view of the surrounding scenery.

  15. Gelled

    A coating which has thickened to a jelly like consistency making it unusable.

  16. General lighting

    Lighting that provides overall brightness for an area.

  17. Geometric patterns

    Any pattern or design characterized by straight lines, triangles, circles, and so on.

  18. Georgian

    An architectural and decorative style popular in America during the late eighteenth century, with rooms characterized by the systematic use of paneling, other classically inspired woodwork and bold colors.

  19. Ghosting

    Non-uniform sheen of paint resulting in a shadowed effect. Usually caused by lack of a primer or sealer, or poor quality ones.

  20. Gilsonite

    An asphaltite, one of the purest natural bitumens. The specific gravity is 1.05 to 1.10. It is used in japan and other varnishes and for waterproofing.

  21. Glass block

    Building blocks made of translucent glass used for non-load-bearing walls to allow passage of light.

  22. Glass cutter

    Pencil-shaped metal tool, at one end of which is a wheel-shaped cutter used for scoring glass or glazed ceramic tile.

  23. Glass Transition Temperature (Tg)

    The temperature at which a material changes from a soft, rubbery state to a more brittle state.

  24. Glaze

    A paint or colorant mixed with a transparent medium and diluted with a thinner compatible with the medium.

  25. Glazed Ceramics/Tile

    A surface covered with a glaze, lustrous, smooth, or glossy finish.

  26. Glazed tile

    Ceramic or masonry tile with an impervious, glossy surface.

  27. Glazier's points

    Small wedges of metal most commonly used to hold a pane of glass in a window frame; also inserted between floorboards to silence squeaks.

  28. Glazing

    Glass or plastic, translucent or transparent, used in walls to permit vision and/or the passage of solar light and heat.

  29. Glazing Compound

    A putty used to set glass in window frames and to fill nail holes and cracks.

  30. Gloss

    A shiny finish that reflects the maximum amount of light.

  31. Gloss Meter

    A device for measuring degree of reflectance.

  32. Gloss Retention

    The ability of a coating to retain its original gloss.

  33. Glossmeter

    An instrument for measuring the luster or gloss of a finished surface.

  34. Glossy finish

    The appearance of sheen after a paint or finish dries.

  35. Glycol Ether

    A group of relatively slow evaporating, strong solvents commonly utilized in epoxy coatings.

  36. Gothic revival

    An architectural and decorative style popular in America during the mid-nineteenth century. It romanticized the design vocabulary of the medieval period, using elements such as pointed arches and trefoils (three-leaf motifs).

  37. Gouache

    Painting in opaque watercolour. The pigment have a gum binder, and the filler is invariably some form of opaque white (such as clay or barite) which gives a typical 'chalky' look even to dark hue.

  38. Grain

    The direction and arrangement of wood fibers in a piece of wood. Grain reflects the growth-ring pattern in the tree. The grain will look different in different woods and as a result of different sawing techniques.

  39. Grain Raising

    The objectionable roughness of wood caused by the application and absorption of stains or other materials. The roughness is due to the short broken fibers of wood which more or less stand up due to the swelling or raising action of the liquid coating.

  40. Graining comb

    A flexible steel or plastic device with random-sixed tines or teeth. It is dragged through wet glaze or paint to create striated or grained surfaces. A common hair comb makes a workable substitute.

  41. Grape arbor

    An arbor that provides gardening space for a crop of grapes, as well as shade and protection.

  42. Gray silicone carbide sandpaper

    A sandpaper which contains zinc stearate, a soap-like lubricant, making it easier to sand finishes without using an additional lubricant.

  43. Greek revival

    An architectural and decorative style that drew inspiration from ancient Greek designs. Its dignified motifs, such as the Greek key and acanthus, and classical elements, such as pediments and columns, became popular in America as symbols that embodied the idea of democracy.

  44. Green lumber

    Often called garden-grade lumber because it is stacked outside in a lumberyard. Has a higher moisture content and is usually less expensive than kiln-dried or air-dried lumber. It is also easier to nail, but it will shrink as it dries, causing nails to loosen and gaps to appear between boards.

  45. Grind

    The dispersion of particles (usually pigments) in a coating. Usually measured in particle size.

  46. Grit

    A measure of the roughness of an abrasive paper. The lower the figure given for the grit size, the coarser the paper.

  47. Grit Blasting

    Abrasive blasting using grit as the blasting media.

  48. Grit rating/Grit number

    The coarseness or texture roughness of sandpaper. The higher the number, the finer the grit.

  49. Groove

    A channel cut into a piece of wood that runs with the grain.

  50. Ground coating

    An acrylic coating on the upper surface of the wallpaper substrate. The ground coating is usually an off-white or a colored surface.

  51. Grout

    The fine-particle cement filler in the seams between ceramic tiles. It is available either ready-mixed or as dry powder that is mixed with water, and comes in a wide range of colors to match or complement any tiles.

  52. Gypsum

    A mineral (calcium sulfate) that, after processing, forms the core of drywall panels.

Hairline Cracking - Hygroscopic

  1. Hairline Cracking

    Fine lines or incipient checks in the dried surface of finishing materials. Often caused by sudden temperature changes.

  2. Half bath (powder room)

    A bathroom that contains only a toilet and a sink.

  3. Hammertone finish

    A paint finish which makes the surface look as though it has been peened. Such finishes usually employ aluminum flake pigments and silicone oils.

  4. Hand edger

    A hand tool used to round the edges of a concrete slab.

  5. Handrail

    The part of the balustrade that is grasped.

  6. Hardboard

    Manufactured pressed-wood panels; hardboard is specifically rejected by some manufacturers as an acceptable substrate for resilient floors.

  7. Hardener

    An activator curing agent, catalyst or cross linking agent.

  8. Hardness

    Also called "calcium hardness." The amount of dissolved minerals (mostly calcium and magnesium) in a body of water. In unbalanced water, high levels cause scale and low levels corrode surfaces and equipment.

  9. Hardware

    Wood, plastic or metal plated trim found on the exterior of furniture, such as knobs, handles and decorative trim.

  10. Hardwood

    Wood that comes from deciduous trees (those that lose their leaves in fall).

  11. Harmonious color scheme

    Also called analogous, a combination focused on neighboring hues on the color wheel. The shared underlying color generally gives such schemes a coherent flow.

  12. Harp

    On a lamp, the metal frame that holds the shade.

  13. Haze

    The dullness of a surface removable by polishing. It usually results from faulty solvent balance or incompatibility of ingredients.

  14. Head jamb

    The top member of a door or window frame; on doors, the frame consists of a head jamb, two side jambs and a threshold; window frames are the same, except the bottom member is called a sill or stool.

  15. Head wall

    The wall that faces you when walking down a stairway.

  16. Header

    In wall framing, a horizontal structural member that forms the top of a window, door, skylight or other opening to provide framing support and transfer weight loads. Header thickness must equal wall width.

  17. Headroom (of stairs)

    The vertical distance from the nosing (the part of the tread that overhangs the face of the riser) to any object above.

  18. Heart grain

    Wood with a V-shaped grain pattern.

  19. Hearth

    A noncombustible horizontal surface in front of a fireplace; the hearth may be flush with the surrounding floor or raised above it.

  20. Heartwood

    Wood near the center of a tree that is harder, stronger and usually more rot-resistant than wood closer to the outside.

  21. Heat Resistance

    The ability of a coating to remain intact and undamaged after exposure to a predetermined elevated temperature.

  22. Heel stop

    A strip of wood (1x1 or smaller) attached to an angled shoe shelf; the shoe heels are hooked over the heel stop to keep the shoes from sliding off.

  23. Helix stairway

    A stairway that moves in a spiral around a central axis. These structures often have convex or concave walls, and are difficult to wallpaper.

  24. Hide glue

    The traditional glue used by cabinetmakers. It comes in toffee-like sheets, in pearls or as a premixed liquid. Hide glue is reversible by applying heat and water.

  25. Hiding

    The ability of a coating to obscure the surface to which it is applied.

  26. High Build

    A term referring to a paint film which can produce a thick film in a single coat.

  27. High Solids

    Paint containing 35 to 80 percent solids. They are generally characterized by higher viscosities.

  28. High Solids Paint

    Paint containing 35 to 80 percent solids, These products have become popular because of the reduction in solvent emissions associated with their use. They are generally characterized by higher viscosities.

  29. High Velocity Ovens

    Ovens which use extremely hot, fast moving air to cure paint films. Their advantage is reduced floor space and fast cure times. Large or complex shapes are sometimes difficult to cure, however.

  30. High-density overlay (HDO)

    A resin-impregnated fiber bonded under high heat and pressure to one or both sides of a plywood panel. The tough overlay withstands severe exposure without the need for further finishing.

  31. Highlight

    The lightest tone in a room.

  32. Hinges

    Hardware used for hanging doors and lids. For cabinet doors, hinges are available in three basic types: overlay, inset and flush-fit.

  33. Hold Out

    The ability of a paint film to dry to its normal finish on a somewhat absorptive surface.

  34. Holiday

    A spot missed while painting a surface.

  35. Hollow-wall fastener

    This type of fastener is designed for use in walls made of plaster or drywall. It consists of an anchor bolt with a sleeve that expands against the inside of a wall.

  36. Honeycombing

    Checks often visable at the surface that occur in the interior of a piece of wood, usually along the wood's rays.

  37. Horizontal guideline

    A line used to align wallpaper or a border on a horizontal plane.

  38. Horizontal pattern sequence

    In wallpaper, the horizontal recurrence of a pattern or design across a wall surface. A straight-across match has the same pattern at the top of every strip.

  39. Horizontal working lines

    Level, horizontal lines that serve as a guide for laying horizontal courses of tile on a wall or other vertical surface.

  40. Hot Rolled Steel

    Steel which has been formed while still hot, generally characterized by the presence of bluish-black mill scale.

  41. Hot Spots

    Lime spots which are not completely cured and bleed through the coating on a plastered wall.

  42. Hot spraying

    Spraying of hot lacquers or paints, the viscosities of which have been reduced to spraying consistency by means of heat instead of by the addition of volatile solvents. By such a process, it is possible to apply materials with higher solid contents, and therefore achieve a better film build.

  43. Housed stringer

    A form of staircase construction in which the stringer has tapered mortises routed into the face of the finish stringer. Treads and risers slip into the mortises and are secured with wedges.

  44. Hue

    Synonym for color. Used most often to describe the color family to which a color belongs.

  45. Hydrocarbon

    Extracts from petroleum such as gasoline, lubricating oils, solvents, etc.

  46. Hydrolysis

    The interaction of water with a material resulting in decomposition.

  47. Hydrometer

    An instrument for determining the specific gravity of a liquid.

  48. Hydrophilic

    A substance which absorbs or has an affinity for water.

  49. Hydrophobic

    A substance which does not absorb or exhibit an affinity for water.

  50. Hygroscopic

    Absorbs and retains moisture from atmosphere or other sources.

Illuminance - Isopropyl Alcohol

  1. Illuminance

    The density of light on a surface when it is uniformly illuminated.

  2. Immersion

    Referring to an environment which is continuously submerged in a liquid, often water.

  3. Impact resistance

    Ability of a coating to resist a sudden blow. Ability to resist deformation from impact.

  4. Impact test

    Used to assess the adhesion and flexibility of applied coatings. A weighted plunger is allowed to fall from a specified height onto the front (direct) or back (reverse) of a coated panel. The extent of the damage caused by the impact is used as a basis for assessing the adhesion and flexibility.

  5. Impact-reducing materials

    Wood mulch, wood chips, sand or pea gravel used to soften the landing of a child falling or jumping from any part of a play structure.

  6. Incompatible

    This term indicates that one material cannot be mixed with another specified material without separation or impairment of properties.

  7. Indirect lighting

    A more subdued type of lighting that is not head-on, but rather reflected against another surface such as a ceiling.

  8. Induction Time

    The period of time required after the mixing of two component products prior to use (same as Sweat-In Time).

  9. Inert base

    A paint base which does not provide hiding, color or drying properties. Its main function is to provide solids, usually at low cost.

  10. Inhibitive Pigment

    A pigment which assists in the prevention of the corrosion process.

  11. Inhibitor

    Any substance which slows or prevents chemical reaction or corrosion.

  12. Ink flaking

    A problem that occurs when the color element of the design begins to come off the decorative surface of wallpaper. Causes include defects in the manufacturing process, adhesive on the decorative surface and the use of abrasive detergents.

  13. Inlay

    A decoration, usually consisting of stained wood, metal or mother-of-pearl, that is set into the surface of an object in a pattern and finished flush.

  14. Inorganic

    The designation of compounds that do not contain carbon.

  15. Inorganic Zinc

    A coating based on a silicate resin and pigmented with metallic zinc which has excellent resistance to organic solvents and general weathering.

  16. Inside corner molding

    A molding with a concave or convex shape facing the center of a room and flat surfaces on the other sides that attach to the walls, usually at 90-degree angles. Use this type of molding on corners when there is a void space or when the corner is exceptionally out of square. Inside corner molding also helps hide a mismatch of wallpaper in a crooked corner.

  17. Inside corners

    A corner formed when two walls join facing each other, usually at a 90-degree angle.

  18. Insoluble

    Not soluble; cannot be dissolved.

  19. Intensity

    The brightness or dullness of a color. Also referred to as a color's purity or saturation.

  20. Intercoat Adhesion

    The bonding power between successive coats of paint.

  21. Intercoat Contamination

    The presence of foreign matter such as dust or dirt between successive coats of paint.

  22. Interlocked grain

    Wood in which the fibers incline in one direction in a number of rings of annual growth, then gradually reverse and incline in an opposite direction in succeeding rings, and then reverse again.

  23. Intermediate Coat

    The coating between the primer and topcoat.

  24. Intermediate colors

    Colors made by mixing equal amounts of one primary and one secondary color, such as red-orange and blue-green.

  25. Intermediate layer

    The middle layer in some types of wallpapers, found between the decorative surface and the substrate. The intermediate layer provides extra opacity, especially if it contains a color other than white or off-white.

  26. Intermix

    To thoroughly combine two or more containers to achieve uniformity.

  27. Internal Mix

    A spray gun in which the fluid and air are combined before leaving the gun.

  28. International style

    A post-World War II architectural and decorative style that emphasized simplicity and lacked ornamentation. Smooth surfaces, an extensive use of windows, and white walls are hallmarks of this pared-down style.

  29. Intumescent

    To swell, bubble up, or foam as the result of heat. Intumescent coatings expand when exposed to heat, thereby insulating the surface and slowing burning.

  30. Ion

    An atom or group of atoms possessing a positive or negative electric charge as a result of having lost or gained an electron.

  31. Iron Oxide

    The naturally occurring state of steel; rust.

  32. Island

    A base cabinet and countertop unit that stands free, not touching any walls, so there is access from all four sides.

  33. Isocyanate resins

    Resins synthesized from isocyanates and alcohols. The reactants are joined through the formation of the urethane linkage and hence this field of technology is generally known as urethane chemistry.

  34. Isopropyl Alcohol

    A volatile, flammable liquid used as a solvent commonly known as rubbing alcohol.

Jack-on-jack - Joint tape

  1. Jack-on-jack

    Layout pattern in which courses of tiles align vertically.

  2. Japan colors

    Concentrated oil-based colorants that are used for tinting alkyd paints and solvent-soluble glazes. Japan colors have an intense, flat color and will dry quickly.

  3. Jasper

    An opaque form of quartz that is usually yellow, brown, red or green.

  4. Joint

    The space between the adjacent surfaces of two components joined and held together by nails, glue, cement, mortar or other means.

  5. Joint compound

    A plaster-like substance used to fill seams and irregularities in drywalling, either the vinyl-based drying type, which hardens as the water medium dries, or setting type, which hardens by a chemical reaction that is catalyzed by water.

  6. Joint filler

    Sealant inserted between abutting ends of wallboard.

  7. Joint tape

    Paper or synthetic mesh tape about 3-inches wide that is used to bridge the seams between drywall panels.

Kauri-Butanol-KB-Value - Krebs Units - KU

  1. Kauri-Butanol-KB-Value

    A measurement of solvent strength. The higher the KB value, the stronger the solvency. This is only applied to hydrocarbon solvents.

  2. Kerf

    A shallow slot cut into a piece of lumber usually measured by the width of the saw blade.

  3. Kerosene

    A low viscosity oil distilled from petroleum or shale oil, used as a fuel, paint thinner and alcohol denaturant.

  4. Key block

    A piece of wood at the peak of a gazebo roof designed to meet the rafters.

  5. Kill point

    The position where the final strips of wallpaper join together, usually resulting in a mismatch. For this reason, the kill point should fall in an inconspicuous place.

  6. Kiln-dried lumber

    Lumber that is dried in a kiln, or a large oven, rather than by natural air currents.

  7. King stud

    Regular length studs to which header members are attached. May or may not be located at on-center positions.

  8. Kneading the wallpaper

    The technique of lightly pressing a roll or strip of wallpaper to further minimize the curl factor that originates from the packaging process. To knead the roll, reverse-roll a strip and place it on a work surface; then roll it back and forth while applying slight pressure.

  9. Knee kicker

    A tool used for stretching carpet; the front end of the tool grips the carpet; the back end is shaped so the user can apply forward pressure with the knee.

  10. Knee space

    The area located underneath a vanity countertop.

  11. Kneewall

    A wall that extends from the floor of an attic to the underside of the rafters. Kneewalls are short (usually 48-inches high) and often non-bearing.

  12. Knot

    The high-density root of limbs that are very dense, but are not connected to the surrounding wood.

  13. Knot Sealer

    Liquid coating designed to seal the tannic acids in wood knotholes and keep them from discoloring a coating.

  14. Krebs Units - KU

    An unit of viscosity for a Stormer viscosity instrument.

Lac beetle - Luxury bath

  1. Lac beetle

    An insect that secretes a fluid that is made into lac flakes, the basic ingredient in shellac.

  2. Lacquer

    A clear or colored finish material that dries to a hard, glossy finish. Usually applied with a sprayer, lacquer dries too quickly for smooth application with a brush, unless it is specially formulated.

  3. Lacquer Thinner

    Commonly used term used to describe a solvent blend of ethyl alcohol, ethyl acetate and toluene.

  4. Ladder

    Any stairway in which the slope exceeds acceptable rise and run requirements.

  5. Lambrequin

    Drapery that hangs from a shelf, such as a mantel, or covering the top of a window or a door. This term is sometimes used interchangeably with valance.

  6. Laminate

    To bond one or more thin layers of durable plastic to a fabric or a material, Formica, for example.

  7. Laminated particleboard

    Panels of particleboard that are laminated with a plastic surface material and are used in making solid-wall partitioned storage systems.

  8. Laminated system

    A prefabricated closet organizer system made up of components that consist of plastic laminated particleboard. Installation is usually manufacturer-specific.

  9. Laminated wallpaper

    Wallpaper that has a decorative surface bonded to a backing usually made of paper or fabric. Examples include grasscloth, cloth-backed vinyls and solid sheet vinyls.

  10. Laminated wood tiles

    Built of layers of wood; especially appropriate for damp areas.

  11. Laminating adhesive

    A product designed to adhere layers of drywall in double-layer applications, and to attach drywall to concrete or rigid foam insulation (polystyrene or urethane).

  12. Lamination

    The process of adhering two thin layers together, such as a wallpaper's intermediate layer and substrate.

  13. Lampblack

    One of the native colors, lampblack is a deep black made from nearly pure carbon (containing some oil and tar impurities).

  14. Landing

    A horizontal platform at midflight in a staircase. Most often necessary on stairs that change directions.

  15. Lap

    To apply or place one coat so its edge extends over and covers the edge of a previous coat, causing an increased film thickness.

  16. Latex Acrylics

    Aqueous (in water) dispersions of acrylic resin. Clean up easily with soap and water and have excellent weathering characteristics. Less odor and a more rapid dry time.

  17. Latex paint

    Paint that contains either acrylic or vinyl resins or a combination of the two. High-quality latex paints contain 100-percent acrylic resin. Latex paint is water-soluble and dries quickly.

  18. Latex-based

    General term used for water-based emulsion paints made with synthetic binders such as 100% acrylic, vinyl acrylic, terpolymer or styrene acrylic.

  19. Lattice

    Thin strips of wood that are crossed to make a pattern for a trellis or an arbor.

  20. Laying off

    Final light strokes of the brush during painting application.

  21. Lazy Susan

    Axis-mounted shelves that revolve. Also called carousel shelves.

  22. Lead-Free

    Contains less than 0.06% lead, by weight, in the dried film.

  23. Level

    A hand tool for checking that any piece is perfectly horizontal or vertical. Also a term meaning horizontal.

  24. Leveling

    The ability of a paint to smooth out after application so that it shows no brush or roller marks when dry.

  25. Lifting

    Softening and raising or wrinkling of a previous coat by the application of an additional coat; often caused by coatings containing strong solvents.

  26. Light box

    A box containing the major types of lighting: incandescent (standard light bulbs) and fluorescent (cool white, warm white, and daylight).

  27. Light reflectance value - LRV

    The numerical value associated with the amount of light reflected off a dry film coat; the measurement is obtained by using a gloss meter.

  28. Light sources

    Any device that creates light and any opening that admits light. Consider lighting variables before choosing colors, textures, shiny or dull finishes, etc. Variables include direct or reflected natural, incandescent or fluorescent light.

  29. Light well

    A lighting fixture recessed below ground level that directs light upward, typically used to highlight tall plantings or other features beside the pond.

  30. Lightfastness

    The ability to withstand color change on exposure to light.

  31. Lightness

    (brightness, reflectance, value) position on the gray scale between pure black and pure white.

  32. Lightweight joint compound

    A patching compound that is very light and nonshrinking and requires little effort when sanding. When the joint compound dries, it does not evaporate and, therefore, does not shrink.

  33. Lignin

    The binding agent that holds the cells in wood together.

  34. Linear feet

    A one-dimensional measurement of length.

  35. Liner paper

    Blank wallpaper stock available in a variety of weights, used to smooth a rough surface or to cover the grooves in paneling or concrete block walls. It is also used under expensive hand-printed murals and foils. Liners minimize the possibility of mildew, as they absorb excess moisture between layers of nonbreathing wallpaper and nonbreathing wall surface.

  36. Lining brush

    A thin, flexible, long-bristled brush used for fine lining and detail work.

  37. Linseed oil

    A finishing oil made from pressed flax seeds. An ingredient used in paint (oil-based) and varnish.

  38. Lintel

    Horizontal members that span a door opening; may be structural or solely decorative.

  39. Lipophilic

    Oil loving.

  40. Livering

    An increase in the consistency of a paint resulting in a rubbery or coagulated mass.

  41. Local Cell

    A galvanic cell caused by small differences in composition in the metal or the electrolyte.

  42. Long Oil

    Term used to describe a resin that contains more than 60% oil.

  43. Louver fence

    A fence with boards installed either vertically or horizontally on an angle so that they serve as filters for wind and sunlight.

  44. Love seat

    A sofa-like piece of furniture that consists of seating for two.

  45. L-shaped stairs

    A label that reflects the lumber's natural growth characteristics (such as knots), defects that result from milling errors, and manufacturing techniques.

  46. Lumber grade

  47. Lumen

    The amount of light cast upon 1 square foot of the inner surface of a hollow sphere of 1-foot radius with an international candle in its center.

  48. Luminaire

    The lighting industry uses this term to encompass a "lighting fixture" or "fitting." Luminaires are grouped by mounting type and locations.

  49. Luminous paint

    Paint which exhibits fluorescence. Includes fluorescent paint, phosphorescent paint and radioactive paint.

  50. Luster

    The gloss of a finish.

  51. Luxury bath

    A full bath with a bidet and/or second sink.

Malibu light - Mylar

  1. Malibu light

    Low-voltage lights designed, usually, for outdoor use.

  2. Mar resistance

    Ability of a coating to resist damage caused by light abrasion, impact or pressure.

  3. Marbling

    A special effect glazing technique which makes a substrate look like marble.

  4. Marine coatings

    Paints and varnishes specifically formulated to withstand water immersion and exposure to marine atmosphere.

  5. Marine Paint

    Coating specially designed for immersion in water and exposure to marine atmosphere.

  6. Masking

    Covering an area that will not be painted.

  7. Masonry

    Brick, tile, stone, block or other material, usually small enough to be handled by one man, that bonds together with mortar to form a permanent structure.

  8. Masonry anchor

    Metal fastener used to hold wood structural members to masonry.

  9. Masonry conditioner

    A solvent based pigmented primer coating formulated to have great penetrating power so as to prepare masonry (especially chalky stucco) to receive finish coats. Particularly important under latex paints.

  10. Masonry wall

    A wall made of concrete, cinderblock or brick.

  11. Masons sand

    A fine, dry prescreened sand.

  12. Masstone

    Color produced by a single color dispersed full strength in a suitable vehicle.

  13. Mastic

    The thick adhesive used to hold floor and wall tiles in place.

  14. Matching

    The technique of joining two strips of wallpaper so that partial designs will line up suitably or a sequence of designs will line up properly.

  15. Matte finish - wallpaper

    A refinement or finish on the decorative wallpaper surface that has very little shine or light reflection; a dull finish.

  16. Medium

    The liquid that is used to disperse pigments. Another name for vehicle or binder.

  17. Medium oil Varnish

    Varnish of medium oil content usually containing from 18 to 25 gallons of oil per 100 pounds of resin.

  18. Medium-density overlay - MDO

    Plywood panels that have a resin-impregnated overlay on one or both sides. The overlay has a texture designed for even paint application.

  19. Melting Point

    Transition point between the solid and the liquid state. Expressed as temperature at which this change occurs.

  20. Memory

    The original shape or position that a wallpaper may return to, even after installation on a wall. Wallpaper with high memory factor can shrink at the seams as it dries.

  21. Menhaden Oil

    A yellowish-brown oil derived from small ocean fish, menhaden.

  22. Merchantable heart grade

    The most economical all-heartwood redwood grade. Allows large knots and small knot holes, and is suitable for fences and posts. Used in some prefabricated fencing.

  23. Metallic Paint

    Paint which contains metallic pigment usually in the form of tiny flakes. Used generally to increase the eye-appeal of the finished coat.

  24. Metallizing

    A process of coating a surface with a layer of metal by spraying, vacuum deposition, dipping, plasma jet, cementation, etc.

  25. Metamerism

    The phenomenon by which colors match when viewed under one type of light (e.g.: daylight), but differ when viewed under another type of light (e.g.: fluorescent).

  26. Methacrylate Resins

    A class of resins produced by the polymerization of methacrylic esters.

  27. Methylene chloride

    A chemical compound thought to be carcinogenic. Contained in most effective chemical strippers.

  28. Metric roll - Euro bolt

    An amount of wallpaper containing 28 to 30 square feet per single roll. This is about 25 percent less than the American single roll. The standard metric single roll is usually about 21-inches wide and 16-1/2-feet long; however, some manufacturers are making metric-size single rolls 27-inches wide by 13-1/2-feet long. Metric double rolls contain approximately 56 to 60 square feet.

  29. Micron

    A micrometer or one millionth of a meter.

  30. Mil

    One one-thousandth of an inch; the measurement used to gauge the thickness of PVC and rubber pond liners.

  31. Mildew

    A fungus that grows in dark, moist environments. It appears in different colors such as black, gray, yellow, green or purple.

  32. Mildewcide

    Chemical agent which destroys, retards or prevents the growth of mildew.

  33. Mill Oil

    Film of forming oil usually found on galvanized or cold-rolled steel as shipped from the mill.

  34. Mill Paste

    A heavy-bodied mixture of pigment and vehicle produced in ball or pebble mills. An intermediate product in coating manufacturing.

  35. Mill Scale

    The heavy oxide layer formed during heat treatment or hot working of metals; often refers to steel forming magnetic oxide.

  36. Mineral oil

    Any liquid product of petroleum within the viscosity range of products commonly called oils and consisting of high molecular weight hydrocarbons.

  37. Mineral spirits

    Volatile solvent for oil-based finishes. Also called turpentine or paint thinner.

  38. Miscible

    Capable of mixing or blending uniformly.

  39. Mismatch

    A situation where the patterns on wallpaper do not line up evenly from one strip to another.

  40. Mist Coat

    For inorganic zincs, a mist coat is applied to “wet” the surface prior to application of a full coat.

  41. Mist Coat Solvents

    A solvent especially formulated to help blend in the edges or overspray of a repaired area. Mist coat solvents are similar to regular paint solvents except that they may evaporate more quickly.

  42. Modular

    Units of a standard size, such as pieces of a sofa, that can be fitted together in a number of ways.

  43. Moire

    A watered wood-grain effect printed or embossed on the decorative surface of wallpaper.

  44. Moisture content - in wood

    The amount of water contained in wood, expressed as a percentage of the dry weight of wood.

  45. Moisture curing

    Moisture cured urethanes dry by solvent evaporation and cure by reacting with moisture/water vapor in the air. Generally, for this to occur, relative humidity levels must exceed 20%.

  46. Moisture-resistant drywall

    Also called blueboard or greenboard; a moisture-resistant (not waterproof) type of wallboard that can withstand high levels of humidity, often used in bathrooms, kitchens and laundry rooms.

  47. Molding

    A thin strip, usually wood, that has been cut, shaped, and/or embossed in a decorative manner. Moldings are used as trim, and the two terms are often used interchangeably.

  48. Molding depth

    Distance between the bottom edge of a crown molding and the ceiling plane.

  49. Molecule

    The smallest unit of a substance.

  50. Monochromatic

    Having only one color or the various tonal values of one color. A monochromatic wallpaper pattern contains same-color blends.

  51. Monomer

    Small molecule capable of undergoing polymerization.

  52. Moonlighting

    A lighting effect that sends light filtering through branches and casts interesting complex shadow patterns, much as real moonlight does.

  53. Morocco leather

    A soft and expensive leather made from the skin of goat and tanned with sumac; by extension, a paint technique imitating it.

  54. Mortar

    A mixture of cementitious materials, fine aggregate and water. Mortar is used to bond bricks or blocks.

  55. Mosaic tile

    Glass or clay tile that is 2-inches square or smaller. Usually it is packaged in sheet-mounted form.

  56. Motif

    The duplicated design of vertical and horizontal repeats in a wallpaper pattern. Motif refers to the recurring subject matter.

  57. Mottler

    A flat-ended brush used to make woodlike texture in glazed surfaces.

  58. Mottling

    A manufacturing defect consisting of ink spots on the surface of wallpaper.

  59. Multiple-drop match

    A drop-match wallpaper pattern that is neither a half-drop nor a straight-cross match. The multiple-drop match will repeat itself at the ceiling line every third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, etc., strip, depending on the distance of the horizontal pattern match drop, as compared with the vertical repeat. If the match is neither a straight-across nor a half-drop, then it is most likely a multiple-drop.

  60. Munsell Color System

    System of color definition based on hue, chroma, and value.

  61. Muntins

    Framing members of a window that divide the panes of glass.

  62. Mural wallpaper

    Any wallpaper showing a picture or a scene, whether of the countryside, a historical event, modern art or other design. Murals usually come packaged in paneled strips that join together in a particular, numbered order to form the scene.

  63. Muriatic Acid

    A diluted form of hydrochloric acid used to clean and etch masonry and metal. Protective covering should be used when applying this poisonous chemical.

  64. Mylar

    A trademarked name for a strong but thin polyester film, often with a metallic pigmentation.

Nailhead Rusting - Nonvolatile Matter

  1. Nailhead Rusting

    Rust from iron nails that penetrates or bleeds through the coating and stains the surrounding area. Sometimes referred to as flash rusting when it occurs with prime or first coats.

  2. Nanometer

    A unit of length equal to 10-9 meter.

  3. Nap

    A soft or fuzzy surface on fabric (such as a paint-roller cover).

  4. Naphtha

    A petroleum distillate for clean up and thinning solvent-based coatings.

  5. Native colors

    The basic inorganic pigments derived from pigmented earth colored by minerals, and used to make the basic colors found in artist's oil paints: burnt sienna, burnt umber, lamp-black, raw sienna, raw umber and yellow ochre.

  6. Natural bristles

    Also called "china bristles." Brush bristles from animal hair (usually hog). Use this type for oil-based paint only.

  7. Natural finish

    Any finish resulting from the application of a transparent substance which does not significantly affect the original color or grain.

  8. Negative stenciling

    Creating an image or a motif on a surface, often in a repeated pattern, by applying a form and then painting around it. The shape of the image remains on the surface after the form is removed.

  9. Negative technique

    Any painting technique that involves removing wet paint or glaze from a surface.

  10. Neoclassic

    Any revival of the ancient styles of Greece and Rome, particularly during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The shapes and ornaments of ancient architecture were applied (incorrectly) to furniture design.

  11. Netting

    This refers to the warp and weft of woven materials such as grasscloth, rushcloth, jute weaves, etc.

  12. Neutral

    The pH reading at which the substance being measured is neither acidic nor alkaline. Neutral pH is 7.0.

  13. Neutrals

    Technically, pure white, black and gray. In decorating, the term extends to grays and blacks with subtle tinges of color and off-whites, as well as a range of natural creams, beiges and browns.

  14. New wood

    Stems and branches that grew during the current season. New wood is usually greener, smoother and younger in appearance than wood of the previous season, or old wood.

  15. Nitrocellulose

    Produced by treatment of cotton fibers or wood fibers by nitric acid, is the major ingredient of most lacquers.

  16. Noble Metal

    A metal which is not very reactive, as silver, gold, and copper and may be found naturally in metallic form on Earth.

  17. Nonbreathing wallpaper

    Nonporous wallpaper that does not allow air to penetrate the decorative surface. This type of wallpaper usually requires a longer drying time because the adhesive must dissipate into the wall surface. When both the wallpaper and wall surface are nonbreathable, liner paper is sometimes used to absorb moisture, in order to prevent a mildew problem.

  18. Nonpolar Solvents

    Aromatic and petroleum hydrocarbon groups characterized by low dielectric constants are referred to as nonpolar solvents.

  19. Non-Volatile

    That portion of a material which does not evaporate at ordinary temperatures; the solid substances left behind after the volatiles have evaporated.

  20. Nonvolatile Matter

    The portion of a material which does not evaporate at ordinary temperature.

Oblique patterns - Oxidize

  1. Oblique patterns

    Patterns that are neither perpendicular nor parallel to a given line or surface. This refers to patterns that follow a diagonal angle across the wall or to patterns printed on the bias.

  2. Occasional piece

    A small piece of furniture for incidental use, such as end tables, coffee tables or extra chairs.

  3. Odorless paint

    A paint such as a water-base latex paint or an oil- or alkyd-based paint which contains an odorless mineral spirit as a thinner; produces a minimum amount of odor during application.

  4. Oil

    General term for a water-insoluble viscous liquid.

  5. Oil Absorption

    The ability of a pigment to absorb or use up a quantity of oil or vehicle in becoming wetted. The oil absorption of a pigment will affect viscosity and gloss.

  6. Oil base paints

    Paints whose films form solids by the air-induced crosslinking of certain unsaturated plant oils known as drying oils. Oxygen is consumed in the process.

  7. Oil finish

    A clear finish produced by rubbing an oil, such as linseed or tung oil, on bare or stained wood. The oil is rubbed to a soft, glowing finish. Also called Danish oil.

  8. Oil paint

    Type of paint that uses either natural oil (such as linseed oil) or a synthetic oil (called alkyd) as the spreading and adhering vehicle. Alkyd paints are the most prevalent oil paint. Oil-based paint requires mineral spirits or turpentine to clean and thin.

  9. Oil pastes

    Very concentrated mixtures of pigment and oil, which are of paste-like consistency. They may be used for tinting purposes, or for preparation of oil paints by the simple addition of more vehicle and/or thinners, with the necessary driers. These are also known as Colors in Oil.

  10. Oil polish

  11. Oil rubbing

    Process of rubbing the dried film of a finishing material with oil and pumice or some other suitable abrasive. Linseed oil thinned with naphtha or turpentine is sometimes used, as are light mineral oils, such as neutral oil, straw oil, and paraffin oil.

  12. Oil stains

    There are two types: penetrating and non-penetrating. Penetrating oil stains contain dyes and resins that penetrate into the surface; non-penetrating oil stains contain larger amounts of pigments and are usually opaque or translucent.

  13. Old wood

    Stems and branches that developed during a previous growing season. Old wood is usually darker, rougher and older looking than wood of the current season, or new wood.

  14. Oleoresinous

    Made by combining oil and hard resin by heating them together.

  15. On center

    A point of reference for measuring. For example, "16 inches on center" means 16 inches from the center of one framing member to the center of the next.

  16. Opacity

    Refers to how transparent or translucent a wallpaper is. If the opacity is poor, it usually means the wallpaper is a light color or does not have an intermediate layer between the decorative surface and the substrate. Primer-sealers that contain titanium dioxide will help prevent show-through from existing wall conditions.

  17. Opaque coating

    A coating that hides the previous surface or coating.

  18. Open doorways

    Door openings that have no casing or decorative trim placed around them.

  19. Open grain wood

    Wood in which the pores are easily seen (e.g., walnut, oak, mahogany).

  20. Open riser

    A staircase without risers, in which the vertical space between treads is left open.

  21. Opened seams

    Seams that have separated between two strips of wallpaper. Causes include poor adhesion, usually because of improper wall preparation, and overworking of the wallpaper during installation.

  22. Orange shellac

    Reddish- brown shellac that has not been bleached.

  23. Orange-peel finish

    A textured finish created by applying watered-down joint compound with an airless sprayer.

  24. Organic adhesive

    A tile adhesive that contains volatile organic compounds or solvents; also referred to as mastic.

  25. Organic colors

    Pigments of animal, vegetable or dye-stuff origin; those containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen but no minerals.

  26. Organic mastic

    Also simply called mastic. This solvent-based or water-based adhesive cures by evaporation. Mastic is generally used on walls and floors; not in places subject to heat.

  27. Organizer system

    Any system of shelves, drawers, closet rods, baskets, etc. fitted into a closet to maximize usable space. Such systems may be hand-built or prefabricated.

  28. Organosol

    Film former containing a dispersion vinyl, resin, plasticizer containing more than 5 percent volatile content.

  29. Orientation

    The placement of any object or space, such as a window, a door or a room, and its relationship to the points on a compass.

  30. Orifice

    An opening or hole, especially in spray equipment.

  31. Out of register

    When two or more ink colors on a pattern of wallpaper are printed out of line with one another. This results in a ghost-type image or total misalignment.

  32. Out-corner tile

    A trim tile used for turning a right-angle corner in a countertop or similar installation in which three adjacent planes (two vertical and one horizontal) are tiled.

  33. Outside corner

    A corner formed when two walls join, facing away from each other, usually at a 90-degree angle. Outside corners are typically found in L-shaped rooms or surrounding boxes built around pipes and ductwork.

  34. Outside corner molding

    A molding that has been pregrooved to fit on an outside corner of two walls that meet at a 90-degree angle. These moldings protect corners from abuse and can hide mismatched patterns.

  35. Overcure

    Caused by an aftercure or by being subjected to too high a temperature or too long a period at a proper temperature and resulting in a product less resistant to aging.

  36. Overdoor hook

    Hanging units, such as baskets and shelves, that are attached to the back of a door with metal clips. The metal clips are thin enough to fit in the clearance space between the door and the jamb.

  37. Overglaze

    A thin glaze added as a final step to a decorative finish. It can be the original glaze thinned somewhat or a new, thinner glaze in another color.

  38. Overgrainers

    Long, flat-bristled brushes used to apply paint detail, generally on dry, previously grained surfaces.

  39. Overlap

    Applying a second layer of coating onto part of a wet layer of the same coating. Done to provide better coverage, uniformity, and hiding.

  40. Overlapped seams

    A type of seam in which one edge of the wallpaper laps over another edge and is not double-cut to form a butt seam. They are rarely used except when correcting out-of-plumb outside corners, archways and soffits.

  41. Overspray

    Sprayed paint that does not land on the targeted areas of the item being painted.

  42. Overspreading

    Covering more area with a coating than is intended by the manufacturer.

  43. Over-the-post railing

    A balustrade in which a continuous handrail is attached to the tops of the newel posts.

  44. Overtrimmed wallcoverings

    The result when too much selvage is removed either at the factory or by the installer. This results in a mismatch on the edges of the wallpaper because part of the print will be missing.

  45. Overworked

    The result when a wallpaper strip is stretched or pulled away from the wall too many times. Take care not to overwork wallpaper because you can damage it, causing the seam to gap apart after drying.

  46. Oxidation

    Combination with oxygen, drying, burning, rusting.

  47. Oxidize

    To unite with oxygen.

Paint - PVC laundry basket

  1. Paint

    A pigmented opaque material that completely covers and hides the surface to which it is applied. Paint is available in oil-based and water-based formulas.

  2. Paint deterioration

    A condition where a poor latex paint or builder's flat application breaks down beneath the wallpaper because of improper wall preparation. Any time a poor grade of latex paint is on the wall surface, the paint will not be able to withstand the drying pressures that take place while the wallpaper is drying out. Always make sure to prime wall surfaces with a wallpaper primer-sealer to ensure a satisfactory job and a secure bond.

  3. Paint-grade

    Trim made of many small pieces of wood joined together into one long piece, using glue and interlocking joinery called finger joints.

  4. Paint-grade wood

    Wood with minor flaws, like differences in grain or color, that will be hidden by a coat of paint.

  5. Palette

    Traditionally, a small wooden board for mixing dollops of paint. It can be made of plastic or improvised using a glass, plastic or plastic-coated-paper plate.

  6. Palette knife

    An artist's knife with a thin, dull, flexible blade, used for mixing, scrapping or applying paint. It can be made of plastic or metal.

  7. Palm sander

    A small, electric sander with vibrating pad to which sandpaper is clamped. Shaped to fit a palm, this tool facilitates woodwork sanding.

  8. Panel

    A flat, rectangular piece of material that forms part of a wall, door or cabinet. Typically made of wood, it is usually framed by a border and either raised or recessed.

  9. Paneling

    Planks or sheets used as a finished wall or ceiling surface; often with a wood or simulated wood finish.

  10. Pantry

    A storage room or large closet for packaged foods.

  11. Parchment

    An animal skin used for writing, or paper made in imitation of it; by extension, the decorative finish that has a similar appearance.

  12. Parquet

    Inlaid woodwork arranged to form a geometric pattern on a floor. It consists of small blocks of hardwood, which are often stained in contrasting colors.

  13. Particleboard

    Reconstituted wood particles that are bonded with resin under heat and pressure and made into panels. Particleboard has a tendency to swell when exposed to moisture.

  14. Parting

    The selective corrosion or leaching of a component from an alloy such as the parting of zinc from brass, leaving a copper residue; similar leaching also may occur in other metals.

  15. Partition

    A wall that divides space but plays no part in the structural integrity of a building.

  16. Partition wall

    A wall that divides space but plays no part in a building's structural integrity.

  17. Parts Per Million - PPM

  18. Passivate

  19. Passivator

    An inhibitor which changes the potential of a metal appreciably to a more cathodic or noble value.

  20. Paste wood filler

    Liquid or paste material designed to fill in holes or grain lines so that final finishes may be applied to a smooth surface. Also called grain filler or pore filler.

  21. Pastel

    A color to which a lot of white has been added to make it very light in value.

  22. Pastel colors

    Any light, delicate shade of color; pale and subdued; a tone of a hue reduced in intensity or strength.

  23. Patina

    The overall effect of the aging process on wood or a finish, generally characterized by a muting of the colors and a satin finish.

  24. Pattern matching

    To align a repeating pattern when joining together two pieces of fabric or wallpaper.

  25. Pattern placement

  26. Patterns

  27. Paver tile

    Any floor tile that is not classified as red-bodied quarry tile. Ranges from impervious porcelain to soft-bodied Mexican patio pavers.

  28. Pavers

    Man-made units, frequently identified as "paving bricks" which are either brick or molded concrete. There are many types, styles and sizes. Some interlock in patterns and when properly set in a base of sand or concrete will withstand a great deal of weight.

  29. Pavilion

    A rectangular structure with a slat, lattice or gable roof.

  30. Pedestal

    A stand-alone lavatory with a basin and supporting column in one piece.

  31. Pediment

    A triangular piece found over doorways, windows and occasionally mantles. It also refers to a low-pitched gable on the front of a building that is either from, or inspired by, ancient Greece.

  32. Peeling

  33. Penetrating Stains

  34. Peninsula

    A countertop, with or without a base cabinet, that is connected at one end to a wall or other counter and extends outward, providing access on three sides.

  35. Penny

    Unit of measurement for nail length, e.g., a 10d nail is 3 inches long. (abbr. d)

  36. Perforated hardboard

  37. Perm Rating

    A number to designate the amount of water vapor transmitted through a substrate - the lower the number, the less water vapor transmitted.

  38. Permanent Colors

    Color pigments that do not fade on exterior exposure.

  39. Permanent structure

    Any structure that is anchored to the ground or a house.

  40. Permeability

    A measure of water vapor transmission. The ability of a substrate to resist transfer of water vapor from one side to the other.

  41. Permit

    A license that authorizes permission to do work on your home. Minor repairs and remodeling work usually do not call for a permit, but if the job consists of extending the water supply and the drain, waste, vent system, adding an electrical circuit, or making structural changes to a building, a permit may be necessary.

  42. PH (pH)

    A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. A value of seven is neutral; low numbers are acid, large numbers are alkaline. Strictly speaking, pH is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration.

  43. Phenolic resins

    A class of resins produced as the condensation product of phenol or substituted phenol and formaldehyde or derivatives.

  44. Photo murals

    Wallpaper that reprints photographs, enlarged for placement on a wall or door.

  45. Photochemically reactive

  46. Photographing

    When joint compound seams are visible through paint; curable by skim-coating.

  47. Piano hinge

    A long butt hinge used in making a chest or other piece of cabinetry.

  48. Pickling

    A method used to give wood a whitish cast.

  49. Picture molding

    Molding used to hang metal hooks to suspend paintings and wall hangings, so there is no need to put holes in the wall.

  50. Pigment

    The substances that give paint color. Pigments are derived from natural or synthetic materials that have been ground into fine powders.

  51. Pigment volume concentration - PVC

    The ratio of the total volume of a pigment to the total volume of non-volatile matter in a paint.

  52. Pigmented primer-sealer

    A type of primer-sealer that dries white instead of clear. It blocks existing wallpaper or discolorations on the wall from showing through semitransparent wallpaper.

  53. Pigmented stains

    Those stains which get their color primarily from pigments mixed with binder and volatile thinners.

  54. Piling

  55. Pilot hole

    A hole drilled before a screw is inserted to defeat splitting the wood.

  56. Pinholes

    Small pore-like flaws in a material extending entirely through an applied film and which have the appearance of pin pricks.

  57. Pinned baluster

  58. Pitted surface

    A texture, resembling travertine marble, that is created by scattering ordinary rock salt evenly over the concrete surface after troweling or brooming the concrete. This creates a pitted texture that resembles travertine marble.

  59. Plan drawing

    A schematic drawing that gives an overhead view of an area, such as a room or deck, indicating the positioning of items, such as furniture, windows, footings and so on, that are to be included in the finished area.

  60. Plaster

    A mixture of sand, lime and water of a consistency that can be applied to a wall or ceiling with a trowel. Various plasters have different uses, such as for patching holes, or for finishing a smooth surface.

  61. Plasterboard

    A base material that provides a fire-resistant underlayment for trowel-applied plaster and has an absorbent face paper meant to draw water away from the freshly applied plaster to keep it from slumping.

  62. Plastic cement

    A dry cement mixture that includes a powdered latex additive to reduce cracking and serves as a waterproofing agent.

  63. Plastic laminate

    A hard-surfaced, thin material made from melamine under high pressure and used for the finished surfaces of countertops, cabinets and furniture.

  64. Plastic wood

    A paste of wood flour, plasticezer, resins and/or other materials dispersed in nitrocellulose or other binders and volative solvents, used for repairing or filling holes in wood, etc.

  65. Plasticizer

    A low molecular weight material added to polymeric materials such as paints, plastics, or adhesives to improve their flexibility.

  66. Plastisol

  67. Platform stairs

    Stairs built for access to a low deck or patio without the hassle of stringers.

  68. Plumb

    Vertically straight, in relation to a horizontally level surface.

  69. Plumb bob

  70. Plumb line

    A long string weighted at one end with a metal plumb bob, used to determine true vertical lines.

  71. Plumbers putty

    A material used to seal openings around fixtures.

  72. Plywood

    Pieces of wood made of three or more layers of veneer joined with glue, and usually laid with the grain of adjoining plies at right angles. Almost always an odd number of plies are used to provide balanced construction.

  73. Pocket door

    A door that opens by sliding inside the wall, as opposed to a conventional door that opens into a room.

  74. Pockmarking

    Film defect in the shape of irregular and unsightly depressions formed during the drying of a paint or varnish film.

  75. Point of design

    A specific detail on a strip of wallpaper's decoration. In a mural, the point of design is the highest or lowest point of the image portrayed.

  76. Poise

    Fundamental and absolute unit of viscosity measurement. A substance is said to have a viscosity of 1 poise when a force of 1 dyne is required to move a surface of 1 cm².

  77. Polar Molecules

  78. Polar Solvents

    Solvents such as alcohols, ketones, etc. which contain oxygen. These have high dielectric constants.

  79. Pole sander

    A 4-foot pole with a swiveling plate to which sandpaper is attached, used to sand high walls or ceilings.

  80. Polishing varnish

    Very hard-drying, short oil varnish used for interior woodwork, furniture, etc., and capable of being rubbed with abrasive and mineral oil lubricants to a very smooth surface for a desired degree of gloss.

  81. Polyamide

    A resinous material used as an adhesive and as a converter for epoxy resins in coatings.

  82. Polyethylene sheet

    A material well suited to retard vapor passage in a floor, wall or ceiling. Comes in thicknesses of 4, 6 and 8 mils.

  83. Polymer

    Large molecule formed when many molecules are linked together by polymerization.

  84. Polymerization

    The reaction by which two or more molecules of a given substance combine with each other to form a compound from which the original substance can be regenerated.

  85. Polystyrene Resin

    Synthetic Resins formed by Polymerization of styrene.

  86. Polyurethane

    A tough, hard-wearing coating made of synthetic resins. It serves as a good top coat or finish and can be applied over most types of paint, except artist's oils.

  87. Polyvinyl glue

    A frequently used wood glue that has as its base a synthetic resin called polyvinyl acetate. Also called wood glue (white) and carpenter's glue (yellow).

  88. Popped nails

    Nails that have backed out of a wall because of vibration or structural setting.

  89. Popping

  90. Porosity

  91. Porous

    A surface that contains small pores or holes and will readily absorb gases or liquids.

  92. Portland cement

  93. Positive stenciling

  94. Positive technique

    Any painting technique that involves applying paint to a surface.

  95. Post-Modernism

    A term used to define the developments in architecture and interior design that originated in modernism but began to diverge from that style. Unlike modernism, it includes ornamentation and uses historical references that are whimsically out of context.

  96. Post-to-post railing

    A balustrade in which the handrail is cut to fit between newel posts.

  97. Pot life

    The maximum time that a mixed adhesive will stay flexible enough to spread and to create a good bond.

  98. Powder coating

    (1) A 100% solids coating applied as a dry powder and subsequently formed into a film with heat. (2)A coatings application method which utilizes a solid binder and pigment. The solid binder melts upon heating, binds the pigment and results in a pigment coating upon cooling.

  99. Power roller

  100. Prehung door

    A door that's already set in a jamb, with hinges (and sometimes a lockset) preinstalled, ready to be installed in a rough opening.

  101. Premade lumber

    Pieces that are factory cut and/or assembled.

  102. Premixed concrete

    Bagged, dry cement, sand and aggregate that is mixed with water for small jobs, such as securing the base of a post.

  103. Prepackaged concrete mix

    A mix that combines cement, sand and gravel in the correct proportions and requires only the addition of water to create fresh concrete.

  104. Prepasted wallpaper

  105. Preservative

    A protective coating designed for use on wood substrates. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, a product must contain a fungicide in order to be labeled a preservative.

  106. Pressure treatment

    A factory process of using pressure to force preservatives into wood.

  107. Pressure-treated lumber

    Wood that has had preservatives, specifically CCA, forced into it under pressure so it can repel rot and insects.

  108. Pressure-treated wood

    Wood treated under pressure with chemicals designed to protect against termites and fungi.

  109. Pretrimmed wallpaper

    Wallpaper with the selvage already cut at the factory.

  110. Primary color

    Red, blue or yellow that can't be produced in pigments by mixing other colors. Primaries plus black and white, in turn, combine to make all the other hues.

  111. Prime

    The process of initiating water flow in a pump to commence circulation by displacing air in the suction side of the circulation system.

  112. Prime coat

    A sealer coat of adhesive or tile sealant that keeps the substrate from drawing moisture out of the tile adhesive.

  113. Primer

    An essential undercoat layer of paint. Primer kills stains, retards moisture absorption and provides a good surface for a top coat of paint to adhere to. Primer comes in water- and oil-based formulas. It is imperative that new or bare wood, and metal, be primed.

  114. Primer-sealers

    An alkyd- or acrylic-based liquid used to prime and seal walls before the wallpaper installation. Most primer-sealers on the market are acrylic-based. These types of primer-sealers soak into a porous wall surface and bond the paint to the wall surface.

  115. Print-Free

    Paint that is sufficiently dry that it will not retain marks if a hand or brush is pressed into it.

  116. Propellant

    The gas used to expel materials from aerosol containers.

  117. Proportion

    The relationship of one object to another.

  118. Propulsion sprayer

    Machine that spits or "flips" small droplets of paint. Paint is supplied by either an attached reservoir or drawn from a paint can. With adjustable-rate-of-spray mist and pressure these machines are excellent for spraying large surfaces.

  119. Protective coatings

    A thin layer of metal or organic material, as paint applied to a surface, primarily to protect it from oxidation, weathering, and corrosion.

  120. Pry bar

    Flat bar available in a variety of sizes from 8 to 18 inches with a notch for removing stubborn nails.

  121. PSI

    A measurement of pressure - Pounds per Square Inch.

  122. Pulling

  123. Pulling up

    Action of a coat of paint or varnish which softens a previous coat to such an extent as to make brush application difficult and, in extreme cases, causes an objectionable intermingling of the two coats.

  124. Pumice

  125. Putty

    A doughlike mixture of pigment and oil used to set glass in window frames and to fill nail holes and cracks.

  126. PVC

    Polyvinyl chloride thermoplastic resin, often used to make plumbing supplies and drain pipes.

  127. PVC laundry basket

    A frame constructed from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes that is designed to hold a drawstring mesh laundry bag.

Quartersawn lumber - Quaternary colors

  1. Quartersawn lumber

    Lumber milled from quartered logs, typically very stable, close-grained wood.

  2. Quaternary colors

    Colors made by mixing two tertiary colors.

Radius - Rust inhibitors

  1. Radius

    The measurement from the center of a circle to the circumference; half the diameter.

  2. Rag rolling

    Process of rolling a loosely wound rag down a glazed surface in vertical columns. Creates a soft, repetitive pattern.

  3. Rag Rolling Off

    A technique in which paint or glaze is removed from a surface using a rolled-up piece of cloth that is lifted off in a rhythmic pattern.

  4. Ragging

    A painting technique that uses a crumbled piece of cloth to apply or remove small amounts of wet paint to create a pattern or texture.

  5. Ragging off

    The technique in which paint is pulled from a surface with a bunched-up cloth. Sometimes called cheeseclothing.

  6. Ragging on

    The technique in which paint is applied to a surface using a bunched-up cloth.

  7. Raised panel

    A board with bevels on all four sides of one face so that stock is thicker in the center than at its perimeter.

  8. Raising the grain

    A process of damping the surface of wood with water to bring up or lift small fibers for final smooth sanding.

  9. Raw sienna

    One of the native colors, raw sienna is an earthy yellow-brown made from clay containing iron and aluminum oxides, which is found in the area of Tuscany around Siena.

  10. Raw umber

    One of the native colors, raw umber is a cool brown made from a clay containing iron oxides and manganese dioxide, originally from the Italian region of Umbria.

  11. Reach-in closet

    The conventional bedroom clothes closet, measuring at least 24 inches deep and, for each person using it, a minimum of 60 inches wide.

  12. Reaction test

    A test used to predetermine the effect that an adhesive, cleaning solution or wallpaper-removing solution may or may not have on a specific wallpaper or wall surface.

  13. Reactive diluent

    A viscosity reducer for coatings which has low volatility and will become a permanent part of the coating through chemical reaction, usually under ambient conditions. It is used in high solids coatings to reduce the loss of organic solvents into the atmosphere.

  14. Ready-mix concrete

    Wet concrete that is transported from a concrete supplier in a cement truck with a revolving drum. The concrete is ready to pour.

  15. Reamalgamated finish

    A previously alligatored or roughened finish that has been made level by rubbing the surface with solvent that melts the finish and allows it to dry smooth.

  16. Receding colors

    The cool colors. They make surfaces seem farther from the eye.

  17. Recess

  18. Recommended span

    The distance a piece of lumber can safely traverse without being supported underneath.

  19. Red label goods

    Flammable or explosive materials with flash points below 100°F

  20. Red ochre

    One of the basic pigments, red ochre is a red tinged slightly with violet, made from clay containing iron oxide.

  21. Reducer

    A fitting used to join two pipes of different diameters.

  22. Reducer strip

  23. Redwood

  24. Refined white beeswax

    Derived from natural beeswax, this product produces an elegant, lustrous finish that doesn't yellow.

  25. Reflectance levels

    Refers to the amount of light that is reflected from a colored surface, such as a tile wall or painted surface. Some colors reflect light, others absorb it.

  26. Reflection

    A process by which incident light leaves a surface or medium from the side on which it is incident.

  27. Refraction

    The bending of light rays passing from one medium into another having a different index of refraction.

  28. Registration marks

    Small holes cut into a stencil with more than one layer, which allow you to match up the different layers.

  29. Relative humidity

    The ratio (%) of the amount of moisture in the air compared to what it could hold if saturated at the temperature involved.

  30. Relative leveling

    A measure of the ability of a coating to flow out after application so as to obliterate any surface irregularities, such as brush marks or orange peel or peaks and craters which have been produced by the mechanical process of applying the coating.

  31. Resin

    A category of solid or semisolid, viscous substances, both natural (rosin, amber, copal) and synthetic (polyvinyl, polystyrene). Resins are important ingredients in varnishes used to finish wood surfaces.

  32. Respirator

    A filter device with a replaceable cartridge worn over the nose and mouth to remove irritants (dust and toxic pollutants) from the air.

  33. Retarder additive

  34. Retreating colors

    Generally cool, pale hues that seem to recede from the viewer. Retreating colors can foster spatial illusions and make objects less obtrusive.

  35. Rheology

    Measurement of the viscosity of a fluid under different conditions.

  36. Ribs

    Raised ridge in the finish caused by heavy brush marks which were not sanded or rubbed from underneath coats before finishing coats were applied.

  37. Roller

    A paint application tool having a revolving cylinder covered with fabric, foamed plastic, or other materials.

  38. Roller coating

    Method of applying coatings by means of rubber or steel rolls.

  39. Room continuity

    The continuous flowing of wallpaper patterns and colors from one room to another.

  40. Rosette

    Circular or oval ornamental plaque that serves as a terminus for vertical casings.

  41. Rosin

    Natural resin obtained from pine oleoresin after removal of the volatile fractions. Two general kinds of rosin are commercially available: gum rosin obtained from living trees, and wood rosin obtained from dead wood, such as stumps and knots. Tall oil rosin, a by-product of the paper industry, is a chemically similar material.

  42. Rotary disk sander

    Hand-held machine to which an abrasive sanding disk is attached. Used to remove large areas of paint on flat surfaces.

  43. Rottenstone

    A fine powder abrasive made by crushing decomposed limestone. Rottenstone and oil are used as a fine finishing polish.

  44. Rough-surface painter

    A combination brush and paint pad, this tool is useful for painting rough shingles and masonry. Short bristles resemble a scrub brush.

  45. Round fitches

  46. Rout

  47. Router

    A power tool that is shaped like a cannister and has a bit protruding from the bottom. A router is used to do such things as making grooves, dadoes and rabbets, and mortising door hinges.

  48. Row running cutter

    A knife for cutting carpeting. It follows the rows of pile.

  49. Rubbing

    Process of leveling and flatting a dried coating film by rubbing it, either wet or dry and usually with a suitable abrasive, to remove nibs and other irregularities and to provide a surface with a suitable key for subsequent coating.

  50. Rubbing oil

    A pale, medium heavy mineral oil used with pumice stone or other abrasives as a lubricant for rubbing the dried film of finishing materials.

  51. Runs

    Uneven flow or leveling of paint resulting in sags. Caused by applying too much paint at one spot or spray painting too close to surface.

  52. Rust

    A corrosion product consisting primarily of hydrated iron oxide.

  53. Rust inhibitors

    Chemicals added to special paints intended for metal surfaces that may corrode.

Saddle - Synthetic resin

  1. Saddle

    The strip under a door that joins the floors of two rooms by concealing the seam between them.

  2. Sagging

    Tendency of a wet paint film to flow downward and become thicker in spots on vertical surfaces.

  3. Salt Spray

  4. Sample

  5. Sand finish

    Pebble or sand-like texture.

  6. Sandblast

    Abrasive cleaning of a surface by blowing sand against it at high velocity.

  7. Sanding block

  8. Sanding sealer

  9. Sanding sponge

    Fine-grained (120-grit or finer) polyurethane block sponge used to sand drywall.

  10. Sand-painted walls

  11. Sandpaper

  12. Saponification

    Chemical reaction which causes development of a soapy film on the substrate, causing peeling of a coating from the surface.

  13. Sapwood

    The living wood near the outside of a tree trunk that carries sap.

  14. Sash

    The part of a window unit that contains the glazing; the part that moves in operating windows.

  15. Sash brush

    A finely bristled brush with an angled taper that makes sharp lines on trim, molding and window muntins.

  16. Satin finish

    Finish having gloss in the general range overlapping eggshell and semigloss, depending on manufacturer's or customer's specificiations.

  17. Saturation

    The strength or purity of a color, determined by the amount and clarity of pigment.

  18. Scale

    The size of a room or object.

  19. Scaling

    High temperature corrosion resulting in formation of thick corrosion product layers.

  20. Sconce

  21. Score

    To scratch or etch a cutline in a glazed tile, prior to cutting. The tile will snap or break along the scored line.

  22. Scratch coat

    First coat of plaster or stucco, "scratched" to bond with the next coat of plaster (the brown coat).

  23. Scrubbability

  24. Scumbling

    In painting, the operation of lightly rubbing a brush containing a small quantity of opaque or semiopaque color over a surface to soften and blend tints that are too bright, or to produce a special effect; the coat may be so thin as to be semitransparent.

  25. Sea sponge

    The fibrous connective structure of a sea creature, used to apply and remove paint. Not to be confused with the cellulose variety used in household chores.

  26. Sealer

  27. Secondary color

  28. Sectional

    Furniture made into separate pieces that coordinate with each other. The pieces can be arranged together as large unit or independently. Examples include L-shaped sofas, bookcases and desk furniture.

  29. Seediness

    Defect in a clear varnish or lacquer caused by small particles sometimes visible when examined by transmitted light. On application, varnished or lacquered surfaces may present a bitty, specky or sandy appearance due to this defect.

  30. Seeding

    Formation of small, undesirable particles or granules in a paint, varnish or lacquer.

  31. Seeds

    Undesirable particles which develop in a liquid coating by partial gelation of a vehicle or by agglomeration of pigment particles.

  32. Segmented fence

    A fence consisting of short, straight sections attached to posts plotted along a curve.

  33. Self- Leveling

    The ability of a coating to flow into the indentations left by brushes and rollers and dry to a smooth finish.

  34. Self-Cleaning

    A feature of exterior, alkyd paints, whereby the dry film chalks which then washes down the surface with rain. Any contamination that has been deposited on the paint is carried away with the chalk.

  35. Self-lifting resistance

    The ability of dried films of organic coating materials to resist deformation upon application of an additional coat of the same material.

  36. Self-priming

    Use of same coating for primer and for subsequent coats. It may be thinned differently for the various coats.

  37. Self-sealing paint

    A paint which, when applied over a surface of varying porosity seals the surface and yet dries with a uniform color and sheen.

  38. Semi-gloss

    A gloss range between high gloss and eggshell, approximately 35 to 70 on the 60 degree gloss scale.

  39. Semi-gloss finish

    These paints have a hard, slightly gloss finish that is light reflective, somewhere between gloss and eggshell.

  40. Semi-transparent stain

    A coating which is formulated to change the color of a surface, but not conceal the surface.

  41. Semi-transparent wallpaper

    A wallpaper that is usually light in background color and permits darker colors to show through from the wall surface.

  42. Semi-vitreous tile

    Tile that absorbs between 3- and 7-percent water.

  43. Set Up

  44. Setting up

    (1)Conversion of liquid paint during storage to a gel-like or pseudosolid condition. The process is usually reversible by agitation and thinning, but may be permanent when chemically reactive pigments or highly polymerized media are involved. (2)The thickening which occurs when paint stands in an open can. (3)The increasing viscosity of a paint film as it dries.

  45. Settling

    Pigment separates from other coating ingredients and cakes or settles at the bottom of the can.

  46. Shade

    Slight graduation or variation of a color. It usually refers to a darker tonal value of the hue. Wallpaper is considered shaded whenever there is inconsistent tonal value from one strip to another.

  47. Shading

  48. Sheen

    The degree of gloss in a paint. Sheen ranges from flat to high gloss.

  49. Shelf life

    The period of time after manufacture, during which a coating should be used.

  50. Shelf tower

  51. Shellac

    A natural resin secreted from the lac bug that inhabits certain trees native to India and Thailand. Shellac is the only natural resin still widely used as a finish.

  52. Shiner

    A glossy spot on an otherwise non- glossy surface. Can be caused by spot- priming patched areas, poor wet- edge lapping, or spot- painting with poorly mixed or unmatched paint.

  53. Shingle stain

    A low-viscosity, pigmented, penetrating paint for use on wood shingles to provide color and protection against moisture penetration.

  54. Short oil varnish

  55. Shrinkage

    Disruption of the level plane of the finished surface, resulting in a loss of gloss or wrinkling. Contraction of the wooden substrate, frequently resulting in cracking and/or checking of the coated surface.

  56. Sidedraft booth

    A spray booth in which air movement is from the front side to the back side of the booth.

  57. Sidelight

    A window or panel mounted at the side of a door.

  58. Sight line

    The natural line of sight the eye travels when looking into or around a room.

  59. Silica

    Ground sand or ground quartz used as a pigment extender.

  60. Silicone

    A resin used in the binders of coatings. Also used as an additive to provide specific properties, e.g., defoamer.

  61. Silicone oils

    Oil liquids containing polymers of alternating silicone and oxygen atoms. They have a surface tension lowering effect when mixed with paints. Often used to control foaming.

  62. Silicone paint

    Paint, based on silicone resins, that is resistant to very high temperatures and therefore useful on smokestacks, heaters, stoves, and electrical insulation; requires heat to cure or set; has a high resistance to chemical attack.

  63. Silking

    The term applied to parallel hair-like striations showing in coated films.

  64. Sill

    The bottom of a window or door frame; lowest member in the wood frame of a structure.

  65. Sill - window

    The piece of wood at the bottom of a window frame, typically angled to shun water.

  66. Sizing

    A powdered mixture of starch and cornflower or cellulose and pine flower. When applied to a wall surface, these mixtures provide uniform porosity and increase the tack of wallpaper during installation.

  67. Skim-coating

    The technique of rolling water-thinned joint compound onto a wall and then flattening it with a 20-inch knife to create a very thin, paint-like layer.

  68. Skin

    A layer formed on the surface of a paint or varnish caused by exposure to the air or moisture which produces oxidation or polymerization on the surface.

  69. Sky light

    A framed opening in the roof that admits sunlight into the house. It can be covered with either a flat glass panel or a plastic dome.

  70. Sleepy

    Description of a recently applied glossy coating which has lost its initial gloss other than by bloom and has become dulled or lacking in luster.

  71. Sliding window

    Similar to a double-hung window turned on its side. The glass panels slide horizontally.

  72. Slip

    The opposite of friction. The term given to a coating which appears to be lubricated. Such coatings may, in fact, contain lubricants (as additives) which rise to the surface of the dry film.

  73. Slipcover

    A fabric or plastic cover that can be draped or tailored to fit over a piece of furniture.

  74. Slow solvent

    Solvent with a slow evaporation rate

  75. Slurry

  76. Slushing compound

  77. Snap time

    The point at which a paint or glaze has begun to dull down and become tacky. After snap time, a paint cannot be worked without causing damage to the finish.

  78. Snap-in grilles

    Ready-made rectangular and diamond-pattern grilles that snap into a window sash and create the look of a true divided-light window.

  79. Softwood

    Wood, such as cedar, cypress, fir, hemlock, pine, redwood and spruce, that comes from coniferous trees. Some kinds of softwood are used outdoors because they are naturally rot resistant.

  80. Solid

    The part of the same coating that remains on the surface after the vehicle has evaporated. Also called non-volatile.

  81. Solid surfacing

    A countertop material made of acrylic plastic and fine-ground synthetic particles, sometimes made to look like granite.

  82. Solid vinyls

    Wallpapers that contain a woven or non-woven substrate laminated to a solid vinyl decorative surface.

  83. Solid-sheet vinyls

    Wallpaper that has a paper substrate laminated to solid vinyl. These wallpapers are peelable and scrubbable. Solid sheet vinyls are appropriate in heavy wear or traffic areas such as children's rooms, bathrooms, halls and stairways.

  84. Soluble

    Able to be dissolved.

  85. Solution

    Homogenous liquid mixture, the proportion of constituents of which may be varied within certain limits.

  86. Solvation

    The phenomenon in which the molecules of a solvent surround and are attached to a particle of the material dissolved.

  87. Solvency

    The ability of a pure or mixed liquid to dissolve resin.

  88. Solvent

    A liquid capable of dissolving another substance (such as mineral spirits for alkyd paint and water for latex paint).

  89. Solvent power

    The strength or dissolving power of a solvent. It is usually expressed in terms of kauri butanol value. The higher the kauri-butanol value, the stronger the solvent power.

  90. Soybean oil

    A semi-drying oil obtained from the soya bean. When properly combined with resins or other chemicals it produces good quality synthetic varnishes.

  91. Space reconfiguration

    A term used to describe the reallocation of interior space without adding on.

  92. Spackle

    A trademarked name for joint compound.

  93. Spackling compound

    A powdery substance that mixes with water and is used to cover seams and nail holes in plaster and gypsum wallboard.

  94. Spalling

    The separation of a surface layer caused by thermal or mechanical stresses (as in cooling, bending, etc.).

  95. Spalter

    A type of natural-bristle brush used for smoothing on alkyd paints.

  96. Spar varnish

    A very durable, waterproof varnish for service on exterior exposure. Such a varnish must be resistant to rain, sunlight, and heat.

  97. Spattering

    The technique of applying random dots of paint over a surface by striking a saturated brush or rubbing paint through a screen.

  98. Specific gravity

    The ratio of the weight of a given volume of a substance to the weight of an equal volume of distilled water at a temperature of 62°F.

  99. Specimen

    A piece or portion of a sample used to make a test.

  100. Spectrum

    A spatial arrangement of electromagnetic energy in order of wavelength. In visible radiation the spectrum is a band of color produced by breaking white light into its component colors.

  101. Spewing

    Migration of components to the surface of a coating usually because of incompatibility.

  102. Spider legs

    Film defect where the coating material on an upright surface separates or breaks and the liquid runs down in long, crooked channels.

  103. Split complementary

    A color paired with the colors on either side of its complementary color on the color wheel.

  104. Splitting

    A defect in a painted surface that results when the solvents contained in a fresh coat of paint penetrate into the old paint. Likely to occur when the old layer has been sanded too much.

  105. Sponging

    The use of a natural sea sponge, or synthetic sponge with ripped edges, dipped in colored glaze to apply decorative finish on a solid base coat.

  106. Spot Prime

    To apply primer to those areas where the coating has been stripped or when an earlier coating has worn off in spots.

  107. Spotting

    Development of small areas on a painted surface which differ in color or gloss from the major portion of the work.

  108. Spray booth

    An enclosed or semienclosed area used for the spray painting of fabricated items; may be equipped with a source of filtered air to keep the atmosphere dust-free, a waterfall backdrop to trap overspray, and an exhaust system to vent the fumes of the evaporating solvents.

  109. Spreader adjusting valve

  110. Spreading rate

  111. Stabilizer

    Any substance added to a coating material to make it more stable in the package or while being applied.

  112. Stain

    Any of various forms of water- or oil-based coloring agents, transparent or opaque, designed to penetrate the surface of wood.

  113. Stain brush

    A short and wide bristled brush used for stain. The bristles reduce the amount of stain that runs into the brush ferrule.

  114. Stain controllers

    Also called wood conditioner, prestain and grain tamer. Slow-evaporating, petroleum-distillate solvents that work by filling up the pores and less-dense parts of the wood so the stain can't penetrate.

  115. Stain grade wood

    High quality wood that will not show flaws when treated with a transparent or semi-transparent finish.

  116. Staining power

  117. Standard

  118. Stearate

    A soap that can prevent a coating from adhering to a surface. Some wood fillers contain stearates.

  119. Steel wool

    A matted mass of long, fine steel fibers available in a variety of grades of coarseness. Used for cleaning and polishing surfaces, burnishing, removing film blemishes between coats and the intentional dulling of a coated surface.

  120. Stemware hanger

    A storage rack for hanging stemware upside down. It is placed under a cabinet to save room inside the cabinets.

  121. Stencil

    A cut-out pattern that allows you to paint the same motif over and over. Complex stencils will have several overlapping patterns, and different colors are applied in layers after the previous coat dries.

  122. Stick shellac

    Shellac in solid, sticklike form, which is manufactured in clear form and in numerous colors and shades to match all woods.

  123. Stipplers

    Blocky, stiff-bristled hog-hair brushes used to stipple wet paints, glazes and top coats.

  124. Stippling

    A paint technique that involves pouncing a special brush straight up and down over a surface, creating myriad tiny dots that blend together when viewed from a distance. Similar to the fine-art technique known as pointillism.

  125. Stippling brush

    A blocky, stiff-bristled china brush used to stipple wet paints, glazes and top coats.

  126. Stool

  127. Stop

  128. Storage chest-seat

    A chest that functions both as a seat and a storage place for bed accessories and other linens.

  129. Striking In

    The defect produced by a coat of finishing material partially penetrating an earlier coating.

  130. Stringer

    On stairs, the diagonal boards that support the treads and risers. The middle support is called a stair carriage.

  131. Structured paint

    Paint having a gel-like consistency which breaks down under the kind of shear exerted during brushing or roller application and re-forms when the shearing force is removed. When there is a time lag between the removal of the shearing force and the start of gel re-formation, the paint is said to be thixotropic. The thixotropic structure can vary from a very light gel to the fully gelled thixotropic paints of non-drip type.

  132. Stucco

    A mixture of cement, lime and sand that is used to plaster exterior walls.

  133. Substrate

    Any material that supports another material that is bonded over it, such as backer board for bathroom tile.

  134. Superhydrophobic

    A surface with an extreme aversion to water (i.e., extremely difficult to wet). Surfaces have a contact angle of 150° or more.

  135. Surface drying

    A paint that dries from the outside in, not a good quality since the paint will skin over, blocking or slowing further drying.

  136. Surface tension

    Tension exhibited by the free surface of liquids measured in dynes per centimeter.

  137. Surface-forming tool

    A hand-held rasp-like tool used to shave 1/8 inch or less from drywall edges.

  138. Surfacer

    Paint used to smooth the surface before finish coats are applied.

  139. Sweat-in time

    For multi-component products, the period of time which must elapse after the components are mixed and before the coating can be applied (same as Induction Time).

  140. Sweating

    (1) Exudation of oily matter from a film or paint, varnish, or lacquer after the film has apparently dried. (2) On a paint or varnish film, the development of gloss on a dull or matte finish; caused by rubbing the film. (3) Development of gloss in a dry film of paint or varnish after it has been flattened down (sanding).

  141. Synthetic resin

    Complex, substantial amorphous organic semisolid or solid materials built up by chemical reactions of simple molecules.

Tack - Turpentine

  1. Tack

    That property of cohesion between particles of a paint that can be described as the pulling power of the paint against the surface to which it is applied. Similar to stickiness or adhesion.

  2. Tack cloth

    A piece of cheese cloth or other lint-free cloth treated with turpentine and a small amount of varnish to produce a tacky surface that picks up and holds dust and lint.

  3. Tack free

  4. Tack rag

    A piece of cheesecloth or other fabric treated with turpentine and varnish to create a sticky or tacky quality so the rag will pick up and hold all the dust that it touches.

  5. Tacky

    That stage in the drying of a paint at which the film appears sticky when lightly touched with the finger.

  6. Tall oil

    A vegetable oil by-product from the manufacture of wood pulp. It is a mixture of fatty acids and rosin.

  7. Tannin

    Water- or solvent-soluble colors/resins found in wood.

  8. Tape test

    A type of adhesion test consisting of the application of an adhesive tape to a dried coating and rapidly removing the tape with a swift, jerking motion. The coating can be either scribed or unscribed, depending on the specification. The "wet adhesion" test for latex paints is performed by first wetting the paint with a specified quantity of water for a specified time and blotting off the excess surface water. The tape test is made immediately after blotting.

  9. Tarnish

    Surface discoloration of a metal surface caused by a thin film of corrosion product.

  10. Task lighting

  11. Tempera paint

    A mixture of pigments and a water-soluble glutinous emulsion binder, often made from an oil extracted from egg yolks.

  12. Tempered hardboard

    Solid or perforated hardboard panels impregnated with resin under high pressure to make them stronger and more resistant to moisture.

  13. Terebene dryer

  14. Terne plate

    Steel coated on one or both sides with a lead-tin alloy.

  15. Terra cotta tiles

    Pavers that are available in a variety of earth tones.

  16. Tertiary colors

    A mix of a primary and secondary that produces a range of complex colors, such as blue-green, yellow-green and red-orange.

  17. Textured roller

    A roller with a nap made from wire or plastic strands that leave a distinctive pattern in wet joint compound.

  18. Texturing compounds

    Substances that go into paints where a rough, grained or dimensional quality is desired.

  19. Thermal expansion and contraction

    The movement within a structure or wall in response to temperature changes.

  20. Thermal paint

    Coating containing small granules of metallic powder that creat a resistance when current is applied and thereby heat the substrate.

  21. Thermoplastic

    The property of softening when heated and hardening upon cooling, as contrasted to thermosetting.

  22. Thermosetting

    The term applied to resins which become hard after heating and cannot be resoftened.

  23. Thick-bed mortar

    A layer of mortar more than 1/2-inch thick that is used to level an uneven surface for tiling.

  24. Thickener

    (1) Any material used to thicken a liquid. (2) An additive used to thicken (increase viscosity) or modify the rheology of a coating.

  25. Thin set

    A method of attaching tile to a substrate by means of a troweled-on adhesive.

  26. Thinner

    A liquid that is mixed with paint to make it less thick. Mineral spirits may be used for alkyd paints and water for latex paint.

  27. Thin-set adhesive - mortar

    Any cement-based or organic adhesive applied in a thin layer (less than 1/2 inch) for setting tile.

  28. Thinset adhesives

    Any cement-based or organic adhesive applied in a thin layer (less than 1/2 inch) for setting tile.

  29. Thixotropy

    The property of certain gels to become liquid upon being shaken or agitated and to coagulate again when left in an undisturbed condition.

  30. Threshold

    A wood or aluminum strip used on the bottom of doors to cover the gap between the sill and the floor; not often used on interior doors.

  31. Tiered frame

    A coated-wire framing system in which baskets are placed on separate levels.

  32. Tile cutter

    Special machine used to cut ceramic tile.

  33. Tile nipper

    Plier-type tool used to make irregular shaped cuts in tile.

  34. Tile spacer

    Anything used to create consistently sized grout joints.

  35. Tilt-out tray

    The storage space created behind a sink base's false front panel used for hiding soap, sponges, steel-wool pads and other cleaning accessories.

  36. Timber

    Lumber pieces, larger than a nominal 4x4, typically used as columns or beams.

  37. Tint

  38. Tinting strength

    Coloring power of a given quantity or pigment or paint.

  39. Titanium Dioxide - TiO2

    A white pigment used in paints and enamels primarily to increase hiding power and give greatest brightness.

  40. Titanium white

    The most common white pigment, titanium white is a brilliant white that is synthetically derived from the metal titanium.

  41. Tolerance

    Variation from a specified limit.

  42. Toluene

    Sometimes called toluol. A solvent, like xylene, that softens glue enough so it can be scrubbed off with a coarse cloth or soft-bristle brush.

  43. Tone

    A color to which gray has been added to change its value.

  44. Toner

    An organic pigment which does not contain inorganic pigment or inorganic carrying base. It is usually a heavy metal salt of a water soluble dye.

  45. Tooth

    The coarse quality of a surface (or a coating on a surface) that improves the performance, appearance and longevity of paint.

  46. Top cap

    A horizontal piece of lumber laid flat on top of the post and top rail, covering the end grain of the post and providing a flat surface wide enough to set objects on.

  47. Topcoat

    Usually the final paint film applied to a surface.

  48. Topping compound

    A drying-type joint compound used for the middle (filler) and/or finish coats.

  49. Torchiere

    A lamp designed to direct light upwards. Most of the light is thrown against the ceiling and reflected back.

  50. Total rise

    The total vertical distance through which the stairs must cross, from finished floor to finished floor.

  51. Total run

    The total horizontal distance the stairs cover from the face of the top riser to that of the bottom riser.

  52. Touch up

    Applying paint to small sections of a surface to obtain an even, unbroken coating film.

  53. Toughness

    The ability of a hard finish to resist bending, impacts, or distortion without cracking. The opposite of brittleness.

  54. Toxic

    Poisonous.

  55. Toxicity

    A relative property of a chemical agent with reference to a harmful effect on some biological mechanism and the condition under which this effect occurs. The quality being poisonous.

  56. Track lighting

    Lighting that utilizes a fixed band that supplies a current to movable light fixtures.

  57. Traditional style

    A style of decoration or architecture that employs forms that have been repeated for generations without major changes.

  58. Translucent

  59. Transom

    A window mounted above a door or another window. Transoms usually occur above head height.

  60. Transparent

    A coating which light can penetrate; one which we look through and see the surface underneath.

  61. Trash compactor

    A mechanical device for squeezing trash into a compact bundle.

  62. Tread

    The horizontal boards on stairs, supported by the stringer.

  63. Treated pigment

    A pigment that has been processed during manufacturing to impart specific properties.

  64. Trellis

    An open-framed garden structure on which plants and vines can grow.

  65. Triad

  66. Trim

    One-by lumber used as siding corner boards or as finish materials around windows and doors, under eaves or around cornices.

  67. Trim tile

    A specially formed tile that is used to finish off inside or outside edges and corners of tile installations.

  68. Trisodium phosphate

    (TSP) A strong, low-sud, powdered cleaning agent to be mixed with water and used to clean house exteriors and walls that have remaining wallpaper glue.

  69. Trompe l'oeil

    French for "fool the eye," used to describe a painted surface that convincingly mimics reality.

  70. Troweling

    Finishing the concrete after it has been screeded. This finishing step is for interior concrete applications and concrete without air-entrainment.

  71. True divided-light window

    A window composed of multiple glass panes that are divided by and held together by muntins.

  72. Truss

    Manufactured roof-support member internally supported through cross braces called webs. W-type and Howe trusses are the most common ones used in garage construction.

  73. Trusses

    A roof framing system with rafters supported by crossed webs. An attic with trusses is not suitable for conversion to living space.

  74. Tufting

    The fabric of an upholstered piece or a mattress that is drawn tightly to secure the padding, creating regularly spaced indentations.

  75. Tumbling

    Process used in some paint storehouses whereby containers are repeatedly up-ended to redisperse pigments which may have settled or caked during storage of the paint.

  76. Tung oil

    A water-resistant finishing oil or varnish ingredient made from crushed tung-tree seeds.

  77. Turbidity

    A cloudiness in transparent coating caused by finely suspended matter.

  78. Turnaround

    Space permitting, an area for cars to park and turn around without having to back into the street.

  79. Turpentine

    A solvent made from distillate of pine resins, used as a thinner and cleaner for alkyd-based paints.

UL - Underwriters Laboratories - UV stabilizers

  1. UL - Underwriters Laboratories

    Independent organization that tests electrical products for safe operation and conformance with published standards under various conditions. Products that pass may display the UL logo.

  2. Ultra High Solids Paint

    Paint containing 90% or higher solids.

  3. Ultrafilter

    A special filter which can remove particles of 1 micron or less diameter. Used to reclaim electrodeposition paint resins by separating them from dissolved salts and water.

  4. Ultramarine blue

    One of the native colors, ultramarine blue is an intense blue originally made from crushed lapis lazuli, but now formulated from man-made pigments.

  5. Ultraviolet light - UV

    Invisible rays at the extreme violet end of the sun's light spectrum, which causes color fading and deterioration of certain materials, such as plastics. Most pond liners have chemical additives to inhibit the effects of UV rays.

  6. Underbake

    The result of curing a paint film at too low a combination of time and temperature. The film may be too soft for good durability.

  7. Undercoat

    Any paint applied under a topcoat. Often but not always synonymous with the term primer.

  8. Undercure

    A condition or degree of cure that is less than optimum, i.e. when insufficient time and/or temperature has been allowed for adequate cure; may be evidenced by tackiness, longness, or inferior physical properties.

  9. Undertone

    A subdued color; a color that modifies another color. The color of paint viewed through transmitted (reflected) light. It may be caused by using a top coat that's too thin or that's lacking in solids.

  10. Unglazed tile

  11. Universal design

    Refers to products and designs that are easy to use by people of all ages and varying abilities.

  12. Universal tints

    Pigments that are combined with ethylene glycol and a small amount of water. They are usable in both water- and alkyd-based paints and glaze mediums.

  13. Unpasted wallpaper

    Wallpaper that has not been prepasted at the factory. Install unpasted wallpaper according to the manufacturer's instructions.

  14. Untrimmed wallpaper

    Wallpaper with selvage intact.

  15. Uplight

    Also used to describe the lights themselves, this is actually the term for light that is directed upward toward the ceiling or the upper part of walls.

  16. Uprights

  17. Urea formaldehyde resins

    Synthetic resins obtained by the chemical reaction between urea and formaldehyde in the presence of acid or alkaline catalysts. They are characterized by light color and rapid development of hardness by baking.

  18. Urethane

    Urethane (polyurethane) coatings are those containing an -isocyanate complex. They form tough, hard, flexible, chemical resistant films by one of two methods.

  19. Urethane modified alkyd

    Not to be confused with a true urethane. An alkyd molecule which has been chemically modified by the incorporation of a urethane. A coating, often a varnish, which uses a urethane modified alkyd resin in the binder.

  20. Urn

    A water-holding, vase-like shape formed by leaves in bromeliads; also called a vase.

  21. Usable yield

    The quantity of wallpaper actually installed on the wall. Waste factors such as allowances, matching patterns, etc., are important in predetermining the usable yield for a room or wall.

  22. U-shaped stairs

    Also called switchback stairs, they make a 180-degree turn.

  23. Utility fencing

    Also called snow fencing because it prevents snow from drifting across walks or driveways, it consists of narrow wood slats held together with wire. It is sold in large rolls that are simply nailed to permanent or temporary wood or metal posts.

  24. Utility knife

    A hand-held cutting knife with a retractable, disposable razor blade. Depending on its size and durability, a utility knife can be used to cut everything from cardboard to drywall.

  25. Utility saw

    Also called a drywall or jab saw, it has a round handle and serrated knifelike blade and is used to cut holes for utility boxes, pipes and ductwork. The pointed tip is thrust through the drywall to start the cut.

  26. Utility staircase

    A less frequently used staircase, usually built for access to an attic or basement.

  27. Utility storage

    Areas in the garage, attic and basement of a house used for storing items such as tools and sporting equipment.

  28. UV absorbers and blockers

    Particles that absorb, or in the case of blockers, reflect, UV light to minimize its effect on the wood.

  29. UV inhibitors

    Compounds that are designed to disrupt the normal chemical action caused by UV light.

  30. UV resistance

    The ability of a coating film to endure prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation without suffering damage.

  31. UV stabilizers

    Chemicals added to paint to absorb the ultraviolet radiation present in sunlight. Ultraviolet radiation decomposes the polymer molecules in a paint film and thus UV stabilizers are used to prolong paint life.

Valance - Volume solids

  1. Valance

    Short drapery that hangs along the top part of a window, with or without a curtain underneath. It can also be made of wood or metal that is painted or covered with fabric.

  2. Value

    The lightness or darkness of a color, running from a low-value shade to a high-value pastel tint. Value varies with the amount of white or black in the color's composition.

  3. Value scale

    A graphic tool used to show the range of values between pure white and true black.

  4. Vanity

    The countertop and cabinet used to support a sink. The vanity is usually included for storage purposes. It may double as a dressing table.

  5. Vapor barrier

    A plastic film or other product used on exterior walls to prevent the formation of vapor behind the adjoining interior walls. A properly installed vapor barrier can prevent the formation of mildew due to water vapor between the wall and the wallpaper.

  6. Vapor degreasing

    The use of a condensing solvent vapor to dissolve and rinse away oil and grease from a surface prior to assembly or painting.

  7. Vapor pressure

    The outward pressure of a mass of vapor at a given temperature. It is the index of the volatility of a liquid.

  8. Variegated pattern

    Any pattern or design that contains different features in character, form and appearance. Examples: floral and stripes, wide stripes and narrow stripes.

  9. Varnish

    The traditional top coat used in decorative painting, consisting of an oil-based paint with a solvent and an oxidizing or evaporating binder, which leaves behind a thin, hard film.

  10. Vehicle

    The liquid portion of a finishing material consisting of the binder and volatile thinners as contrasted to the pigment or solid matter.

  11. Veneer

    A thin sheet of wood applied to a piece of inferior wood or plywood. Fine wood veneer is used in furniture. This allows you to use rare and exotic woods, which either are not available in solid form or would be too expensive.

  12. Vent

    An outlet for air, such as a vent pipe in a plumbing system or a ventilating duct.

  13. Vermillion red

    One of the basic pigments, vermilion red is a brilliant pure red made from mercuric sulphide.

  14. Vertical board-on-board fence

    Fence that is fully sided to provide privacy while not entirely blocking sunlight. Often built on a property line.

  15. Vinyl

    A type of flexible water-and-rot-resistant siding made from extruded polyvinyl chloride (PVC).

  16. Vinyl fence

    Prefabricated fence made of PVC plastic that imitates a variety of fence designs, including board, rail, picket, lattice and ornamental metal.

  17. Vinyl-faced panel

    Predecorated drywall paneling that is attached with adhesive and special fasteners and requires no edge or joint treatments.

  18. Viscometer

    Any instrument that measures viscosity or the internal friction of fluidity of a liquid.

  19. Viscosity

  20. Vise

    A device, usually having a pair of jaws, designed to hold wood or other material while work is being done on it.

  21. Visible spectrum

    The bands of hues created when sunlight passes through a prism.

  22. Vitreous tile

    Nonporous tile, stronger than nonvitreous, that absorbs little water and is freeze-thaw stable.

  23. VM and P Naphtha

    The abbreviation for Varnish Maker’s and Painter’s Naphtha. A petroleum distillate with a boiling point of about 197°F and a flash point 70°F.

  24. VOC

    Volatile organic compound

  25. Volatile content

    Percentage of materials which evaporate.

  26. Volume solids

    The percentage by volume of non-evaporating material in a coating.

Waferboard - Wrinkling

  1. Waferboard

    Panel material made from wood wafers bonded with an exterior-grade resin.

  2. Wainscot

    Paneling that reaches from the floor to about one third the height of a wall, capped with molding.

  3. Wainscoting

    Paneling that extends 36 to 42 inches or so upward from the floor level, over the finished wall surface. It is often finished with a horizontal strip of molding mounted at the proper height and protruding enough to prevent the top of a chair back from touching a wall surface.

  4. Wainscoting cap

    Molding used to cover the exposed end grain on solid or paneled wood wainscoting.

  5. Waler

    Horizontal lumber pieces used to span or stiffen walls.

  6. Walk-in closet

    A closet measuring a minimum of 84-inches wide by 72-inches deep.

  7. Wall cabinet

    A cabinet, usually 12-inches deep, that is mounted on the wall a minimum of 12 inches above a countertop.

  8. Wall grazing

    An effect that treats the wall itself and its texture as artwork.

  9. Wall rail

    The handrail attached to the wall in an enclosed stairwell.

  10. Wall washing

    An effect where the entire wall is lit up to bring out the beauty of wallcoverings, scenic murals or painted effects, grouped artwork or books.

  11. Wallboard

    Also known as gypsum board, drywall and plasterboard; a paper-covered sandwich of gypsum plaster used as the primary wall covering in almost all homes.

  12. Wane

    A lumber defect that leaves wood missing from the edge of a piece.

  13. Warm colors

    On a color wheel, the range of reds, yellows, oranges and red-purples. Warm colors, especially when saturated, tend to advance.

  14. Warp

    Uneven shrinkage in wood causing bending or twisting.

  15. Wash

    A thinned-out latex or acrylic paint.

  16. Washability

    Ease with which washing will remove dirt from the paint's surface without causing damage.

  17. Washcoat

    Application of a wood conditioner, thinned linseed oil or thinned shellac to wood prior to staining. You would apply a washcoat to wood that might blotch when stained with a liquid stain.

  18. Water resistance

    The ability of a coating to remain a solid, protective film after exposure to water.

  19. Water spotting

    Spots left behind when water evaporates. Most likely white or brown in color. Caused by dissolved minerals remaining on the surface.

  20. Water white

    As colorless as water.

  21. Water-based polyurethane

    A sealer made from polyurethane resins that is water- rather than oil-soluble.

  22. Wax stick

    A colored wax crayon that hides small defects in finished wood.

  23. Weather resistance

    The ability of a coating to remain intact and attractive after prolonged exposure to weather, e.g., extreme temperatures, temperature changes, UV radiation, rain, moisture, etc.

  24. Weathering

    Behavior of paint films when exposed to natural weather or accelerated weathering equipment, characterized by changes in color, texture, strength, chemical composition or other properties.

  25. Weatherometer

    A laboratory device used to estimate the life of coatings by subjection to ultraviolet light, water, etc.

  26. Weight solids

    The percentage by weight of non-evaporating material in a coating.

  27. Weighted cloth

    A polishing cloth that is applied to the end of a mop handle or other device designed to add pressure during buffing.

  28. Welt

    A cord, often covered by fabric, that is used as an elegant trim on cushions, slipcovers, etc.

  29. Wet edge

    A margin of wet paint or glaze. Leaving a wet edge creates a seamless blend between sections.

  30. Wet film thickness

    Thickness of film in millimeters or microns while coating is still wet.

  31. Wet sanding

    In drywall installation, the use of a damp sponge to reduce and smoothen the surface of hardened joint compound.

  32. Wet-or-dry sandpaper

    A type of abrasive paper that can be used with lubrication. The grit is of silicon carbide, and the paper and glue are waterproof. Lubrication may be water or mineral spirits.

  33. White rust

    White corrosion products (zinc hydroxide and zinc oxide) on zinc-coated articles. They form when the parts are stores so close together that condensed moisture is entrapped between them and the air circulation is inadequate to assist drying.

  34. White shellac

    Clear shellac that has been subjected to bleaching.

  35. White wire

    White insulated wire that forms a circuit with a power wire.

  36. Whitewash

    Cheap type of flat water paint based on lime or whiting lossely bound with glue, size casein or like water-dispersible binders.

  37. Whiting

    An inert, white, crystalline pigment composed principally of calcium carbonate.

  38. Winder

    An L-shaped staircase that uses wedge-shaped treads to make a sweeping 90-degree turn.

  39. Window stool

    Molding that connects the window with the interior of a room, often referred to as the window sill.

  40. Wiping stains

    Those stains, usually pigmented, which are applied and wiped with a cloth to remove the excess stain.

  41. Wire brush

    (1) A hand cleaning tool comprised of bundles of wires. (2)The act of cleaning a surface with a wire brush including wire power brushes.

  42. Wire picket fencing

    Rolls of factory-painted or vinyl-coated welded-wire fencing that come in heights of 12 to 18 inches. Used as a temporary or decorative border around planting beds and walks.

  43. Wood filler

    A pasty material used for filling and coloring the pores of wood. It is usually thinned, applied to the surface, and then wiped off across the grain of the wood, allowing it to remain only in the pores.

  44. Wood finishing

    The planing, sanding, and subsequent staining, varnishing, waxing, or painting of a wood surface.

  45. Wood graining

    A painting technique that seeks to resemble wood by imitating the lines found in cut lumber (which are the tree's growth rings).

  46. Wood preservative

    Liquid chemical applied to wood to prevent decay and insect attacks.

  47. Wood putty

    Any of various paste- or dough-like materials used to fill holes and other defects in wood.

  48. Wood screws

    Screws that are tapered so the threads bite into the wood, which makes a stronger bond than nails.

  49. Wood stain

    A translucent combination of solvent (either water- or alkyd-based) and pigment, usually in colors imitating natural wood, which allows some of the wood's natural color and its grain to show through.

  50. Wood-and-wire fence

    Welded or woven-wire mesh that is attached to a wood frame to make a lightweight, economical fence.

  51. Work triangle

    The area bounded by the lines that connect the sink, range and refrigerator.

  52. Wrapping - Wrap Around

    In electrostatic spraying, electrically charged paint droplets curve around to the rear side of the object being painted.

  53. Wrinkle finish

    A varnish or enamel film which exhibits a novelty effect very similar to fine wrinkles or irregular ridges.

  54. Wrinkling

    A paint defect in which the film surface skins over and then absorbs liquid within the film. The absorption results in swelling of the surface skin with the formation of a wrinkled texture.

Xylene

  1. Xylene

    Sometimes called xylol. A solvent, like toluene, that softens glue enough so it can be scrubbed off with a coarse cloth or soft-bristle brush.

Yellow ochre - Yellowing

  1. Yellow ochre

    One of the native colors, yellow ochre is a mustard-yellow made from clay containing iron oxide.

  2. Yellowing

    Development of yellow color upon aging or curing.

Zahn cup - Zinc white

  1. Zahn cup

    An efflux viscometer consisting of a small cup with a hole in the bottom and a handle so that is can be dipped into the liquid to be measured. The viscosity is recorded as the time required for the cup to empty through the hole.

  2. Zinc dust

    Ground zinc metal, gray in color, used in metal primers.

  3. Zinc Oxide

    A commonly used pigment which is capable of killing mildew.

  4. Zinc white

    A common white pigment, zinc white is a brilliant white synthetically derived from the metal zinc.

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